Z E N D A  M A G A Z I N E
[renamed Zinda Magazine in 1999]

Shvadt 17, 6746                   Volume III                       Issue 1            February 17, 1997

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       A Weekly Online Publication of the ZENDA Assyrian Newsagency

                      T H I S   W E E K   I N   Z E N D A
The Lighthouse...................... A Brief History of Mesopot Archeology
Good Morning Bet-Nahrain............ Kurdish Mob Kills Father & Son
Surfs Up............................ "a poem you will probably love."
Surfers Corner...................... Assyrian Journalism
News Digest......................... Moslem Extremists Attack Egypt's Copts
                       Neo-Assyrian Prosopography Project
News Bits........................... None
Calendar of Events.................. No New Entries
Entracte............................ No New Entries
Intelligentsia...................... Classes and Seminars
Assyrian Surfing Posts.............. Soc.Culture.Assyrian/AssyriaLink/Cafe
Pump up the Volume.................. Wage & Salary
Back to the Future.................. Erech in 3000 BC
                        Birth Rate in the Baquba Camp
Literatus........................... Hammurabi on Marriage
This Week in History................ 1915 Massacre of the Assyrian Youth
Bravo............................... Ramin Daniels
The Directory....................... News Sources
Bshena.............................. Chicago
Salute.............................. Firas

                  THE   L   I   G   H   T   H   O   U   S   E


With the break-up of the Ottoman empire a the end of the First World War, Iraq became a state under ta British Mandate.  Archaeology resumed in 1919, when representatives of the British Museum undertook work at the sites of Ubaid, Eridu and Ur.  This was followed in 1923 by a major joint expedition of the British Museum and the University Museum of the University of pennsylvania under the direction of C.L. Woollen.  This excavated mangily at UR, which some subsidiary work at Ubaid, until 1934; there were important finds,of which the most spectacular were the Royal Tombs.  Ubaid, briefly excavated further by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago in1937, proved to be a site of the earliest prehistorical culture of south Mesopotamia.  Other important digs in south Mesopotamia between the two world wars included an expedition of Oxford University and the Field Museum of Chicago to Kish and subsidiary sites between 1922 and 1933; a French archaeological mission directed successively by H. de Genouillac and A. Parrot at Tello (ancient Girsu) and Senkereh (ancient Larsa) between 1929 and 1934; a German expedition from Berlin at Warka (ancient Uruk) 1928-29, and an expedition of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago at Asmar (ancient Eshnunna) and other sites in the Diyala valley 1930-4.  Over the border in Syria, the French began excavating Tell Hariri on the middle Euphrates at the end of 1933.  This proved to be anienct Mari, a major outpost of Babylonian civilization,  which was to yield thousands of cuneifrom tablets of the first half of the second millennium.

After a break during the Second World War, archeological work in Iraq resumed very fruitfully, with other nations besides Great Britain, the United States, France and Germany now participating.  One new collaborator was Iraq itself; the country had developed a flourishing Directorate-General  of Antiquities, which regularly undertook digs and restoration work at ancient sites.  Others who played an important part included scholars from (inter alia) Japan, Denmark, Italy, Spain, Belgium, and USSR.  Mesopotamian archaelogy came to a halt, which one hopes will only be temporary, with the outbreak of the Gulf War in 1991.
<<Babylonians, H.W.F. Saggs.  Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1995, pp.18-19.>>
     G  O  O  D    M  O  R  N  I  N  G    B  E  T - N  A  H  R  A  I  N

(ZNSC- Chicago)  According to an article posted on Soc.Culture.Assyrian, on February 10 two Assyrians, Mr. Lazar Mati and his son Havel Lazar, were dragged out of a prison in northern Bet-Nahrain by a vigilante group of 200 armed Kurds and were brutally killed. Prior to their murder both victims were tortured.  The report continues "before the murder, 100 Kurds stormed the family home of Mr. Mati and burned it to the ground. Mr Mati and his son had been imprisoned in the governmental jail in Shaqlawa."
The local Kurdish officials had arrested Mr. Mati and his son for the killing of a Kurd. The source of information was cited as the Assyrian International News Agency (AINA).
                      S   U   R   F   S     U   P   !
"I wish to congratulate all of you on the wonderful work you have done for the past three years, and thank you for your dedication and perseverance in putting out the best rapid news magazine in the Assyrian world. You deserve praise for the quality of what you do as much as your passion in doing it. You've ignited a new spirit among young Assyrians and its impact is being felt by those who care enough to see. And though as a people we have a long road ahead of us, Zenda is one project which has smoothed that road quite a bit.  As editor of Nabu Quarterly, I send you my greetings and admiration,  and call on you to continue with your wonderful work. Your effort is much
needed and desired. Shlame khoobane."

Robert DeKelaita
Chicago, Illinois

[Mr. DeKelaita is the editor of Nabu Quarterly, an independent Assyrian publication.  To subscribe contact Nabu, Inc. at POB 59422, Chicago, Illinois, 60659, U.S.A.]


"Shlama Amookhn, For the IMMIGRATION SERVICE LOTTERY, you did not mention to which address people should mail their form(s)."

Wisam Kosa
San Diego, California

[Submit your form by regular mail to:
DV-98 Program
National Visa Center
Portsmouth NH (?????)

Where you see ????? insert the ZIP code corresponding to the region of which you are a native:
Asia = 00210
South, Central America = 00211
Europe = 00212
Africa = 00213
Oceania = 00214
North America = 00215  ]


"my friend from michigan just called me and he said; the chaldean detorit time in arabic..is in the internet. if so would you please tell me how to pull it and also if you know about the (sada al wataan) thanks. and please e mail me back and let me know about how to pull both of those paper in arabic in the net."

Don & Vicki

[We were unable to find neither the Chaldean Detroit Times nor Sada al-Watan (published in Dearborn, Michigan) on the Internet.  Please contact Mr. Amir Denha, publisher of the former newspaper at (810) 552-1989 for more information or write to:

17135 W 10 Mile Road
Southfield, Michigan
U.S. ]


"here's a poem you  will probably love.

this heart is broken because of you.
these eyes are crying constantly for you.
this body is lonely without your embrace.
these lips are yearning for your soft,passionate kiss.

p.s. enjoy fellow assyrians! :-) girl from california."

                  S  U  R  F  E  R  S      C  O  R  N  E  R
ZENDA readers are invited to respond to the following request(s) by either
directly writing to the author or sending a reply to ZENDA.

                             ASSYRIAN JOURNALISM

Francis Sarguis, the English Language Editor of the Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society notes that "Assyrians face a paucity of resource materials explaining their literature, popular or otherwise, either in their own language or in any other. The writings are comparably few, and clearly there is a need to help steer the interested reader in the right direction (JAAS: Vol VII,#2). With the publication of the first issue of Zahrire d'Bahra (Rays of Light) in Urmie in 1849 Assyrian journalism was born in the Middle East.  At the turn of the century tens of other Assyrian periodicals were published in Europe and North America. Since a very few books have ever been written on the modern history of the Assyrian nation these monthly and often quarterly publications remain the only source of information on the development of the modern Assyrian identity.  Hence, there is a renewed interest among scholars of Assyrian studies to collect these publications and preserve and study them as the only sources of modern Assyrian history.

Dr. Gabriale Younan is one such scholar. Residing in Germany,she has kindly asked ZENDA to publish a comprehensive list of her findings on Assyrian journals since 1952.  We invite our readers to review the impressive list provided below and if possible provide Dr. Younan with information not noted here.  This may include a missing publication date, editor's name, place of publication, etc.  Send your comments directly to Dr. Younan at [101357.1704@CompuServe.COM] or
Kreuznacher Strase 68
D-14197 Berlin
phon/fax: 0049 (30) 822 08 46

(For an interesting reading on Assyrian journalism see Mr. Yoab Benjamin's article by the same title, which appeared in the Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society in 1993 (Vol VII,#2, pp.1-28).

Staff of ZENDA

North America

-AGHOUNA (The Struggle) 1993, polit. ZS, montl.San Francisco, engl-ass ADM (Za'wa)
-AL-DIYAR ? (1985)   101 W. Robinwood, Detroit, MI 48203, USA
-AL-MASHRIQ (The Orient - Madinkha)  Chaldean Free Voice (1978-82) ed. Napoleon Bashi
-AL-MUJTAMA (The Community) Modesto, CA (1978-80) ed.William Shabasko
-AL-ZAMAN ?    538 W. 7 MileRd., Detroit, MI 48203, USA
-ANCI NEWSLETTER (1987 2mntl.) Assyrian National Council IL ed. Pierre Shamon
-ARAMAIC TIMES (Tibbe Suryaya) Bergenfield,NJ. (1974-) ed.Faiz Kass Elias,
-AR-RAFIDEYN  ?   19204 Woodward Ave., Detroit, MI 48203, USA
-ASHUR INTERNATIONAL  B.N.D.P. (1986)  P.O.Box 4354, Modesto, CA 95352, USA
-ASHURBANIPAL LIBRARY NEWSLETTER, (vol.1,No.3 1988) A.U.A. Found. , Chicago, USA
-ASSYRIA POLITICAL REVIEW (APR) engl. quart. Washington D.C. APR Foundation, Pras. Simone Noun. -Assyrer und ME Ed. RA Edwin Gania
-ASSYRIA TIMES  Ed. Ben Melco, (1983-85)  P.O.Box 25319, Washington, D.C. 20007,USA
-ASSYRIAN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION of SAN JOSE-NEWSLETTER (1995) bi-month. P.O.Box 41311, San Jose CA     95160-1311
-ASSYRIAN AMERICAN VOICE (Qala Aturaya Amrikaya) 1991 ff.  AACC 1991 ff., ed. Ben Melco, P.O.Box     192, Turlock ,CA 95381-0192, bi-month.
-ASSYRIAN CHRONICLE (1977)   P.O.Box 192, Turlock, CA 95380, USA
-ASSYRIAN FREEDOM VOICE 1976 Edison Baba, New Britain,USA
-ASSYRIAN GUARDIAN  (Natoora Aturaya) ( 1984-96 ff.) Ed. Ben Daniel, P.O.B.59609 Chicago, IL60690
-ASSYRIAN PROGRESS (1936?) Ass Amer. Benevolent Ass'n California (Histor.)
-ASSYRIAN QUEST (BASUYA 1976-81,88?) BNDP P.O.Box 1815, Chicago,IL 60690, USA
-ASSYRIAN SPORTSMAN  (Atlita Aturaya) 1990, Ass. Atlet.Club,POP 46362, Chicago,IL60646
-ASSYRIAN STAR (USA, Chicago,IL 60659, P.O.Box 59309) 1952 ff.AAFed.Zaya Y. Zaya
-ASSYRIAN UNITY (Khuyada Aturaya) ed. Albert Perch (1972-74) Watertown, MA
-ASSYRIAN UNIVERSAL ALLIANCE FOUNDATION NEWSLETTER (Okt.1990)ed.Homer Ashurian, 3.000) 7055 Clark     Street,Chicago IL 60626
-ATOOR INTERNATIONAL MAGAZIN  ed.Beni Atoori (1990)  P.O.B.48696,Los Angeles 90048
-ATRA Assyrian Democratic Party, USA
-BABYLON NEWSPAPER    P.O.Box 215 L.V., Lathrup Village, MI 48076, Chald. Fed. of Amer
-BAHRA Assyrian Student Association, (1982) month.,  1723 West Devon, Chicago
-BAHRA  Central organ (1991 ff.) Assyrian Democratic Movement USA
-BET-NAHRAIN MAGAZINE  ed. S. Dadisho BND Fd.1974ff ,  Modesto CA 95352, POB 4116
-BIL KHIZMAANY W'DOSTY (Between Kith and Kin) an occasional  newsletter ed.Mikhael Khamo Pius, vol     11.No1,Aug.1994, 3504 Setrok Drive, Modesto, CA 95356-0290
-BNPD IRAQ JOURNAL - Voice for the Assyrian People,  B.N.D.P (Iraq) US & Canadian branches  Ben     Melco (1994 ff.) POB 5758126,Modest CA 95357-8126
-BRAQALA   A.U.A. Detroit Chapter, P.O.Box 51, Hazel Park, MI 48030, USA
-CALL Assrian Orthodox Church of Virgin Mary, New Jersey; USA
-CHALDEAN RAY (Chaldean Club)
-CHALDEAN SUN (Chaldean American Youth Club
-CHICAGO ASSYRIAN Assyrian American League
-CONVENTION AD BOOKS AANF 1933-1949 ff. 1950 ff. (hist.)
-CULTURAL (1986) The Christian Cultural Assoc.Inc.26305 John R.Madison Heights, MI
-DEMOCRATIC ASSYRIAN Assyrian Democratic Union
-DOVE ed. Alfred Poulos 2024 W.Montrose, Chicago,IL 60618,USA
-FREEDOM Voice of Assyrian People,USA (?)
-GANNANA  St.Mary's Parish, Los Angelos,CA
-HAIROOTHA Assyrian Liberation Movement,Hoffmann Estates, IL Ed. Ben Melco (1978-)
-IZGEDDA (The Messenger) 1993 mntl. newsletter San Jose, CA, KdO West Diozese,Ed. Mar Bawai Soro     Rev. Michael Birnie, 680 Minnesota Ave, San Jose,CA 95125-1766
-IMMIGRANT International Confederation of the Assyrian Nation
-JOURNAL OF THE ASSYRIAN ACADEMIC SOCIETY, Magalta d-Shotaputa Aqadimkhita d Aturaya, ed.     R.Paulissian, D.Benjamin, F.Sarguis), bi-ann. 1986 ff. P.O.Box 5715,
    Santa Barbara 93150 + P.O.Box 4102, Des Plaines,IL 60016
-JUDGMENT, Assyrian Party Chicago, USA (1981)
-KHABRI K HATI  Assyrina-American Club of Flint (1991/92), POB 482, Flint,MI 48501-0482
-LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (Lishana wa Siprayuta)  ed.Oraham Yalda (1991-92) Chicago
-LIGHT  (1989) Mar Narsay Parish, San Francisco, CA-USA
-LIGHT OF ATOUR ed. Evan Arsanis, USA
-MARDUTA The Christian Cultural Association, Detroit MI
-MARGANITHA (Pearl) Assyrian Cultural Association, P,.O.Box 25067, Chicago, IL 60625, USA
-MDARSHONO St. Ephrem Syrian Orthodox Church,Los Angelos
-METROPOLITAN Assyrian Civic Club USA
-MHADYANA (The Guide), ANF (1966-1970)   Chicago
-MODERN ASSYRIAN  P.O.Box 1774,Evanston, IL 602, U.S.A.
-NAHEERA (Light) 1972, ed.SamParhad
-NEESHA  Political organ of  B.N.D.P. (1986) CA-Branch, Modesto CA
-NEWS OF ASSUR (Tibbe d'Atur) 1979-? Los Angeles
-NINEVEH AFA (USA, Berkley CA 94702, 1920 San Pablo Ave.)  Ed. Youel A. Baaba, Sargon Michael,     George Bet-Shelmon, Ninos David 1985 Julius Shabbas+ Joell Elias, Tobias Gewargis
-NINEVEH A monthly Newspaper for the Assyrian Community United Assyrian Youth of Canada (vol2,1996)     2300 Finch Ave 41, North York, Ont.Canada M9M3Y3
-NINVE (1979) Detroit, MI Chaldo-Assyrian Association
-NISIBIN Assyrian American Association of San Jose
-NOORA  Noohra Foundation Inc.USA (?)
-NUHRA Chaldean Ur Club
-QALA D'ATORAYE (1969-1991, Skokie Ill.,mntl.) Sh. Gewargis Benyamin engl.-arab.ass. Baath.     Propaganda
-QALA MIN MADINKHA  Assyrian Church of the East, Patr. M Dinkha,  P.O.Box 25264, Chicago,IL     60625(1982) ed.  Akhtiar Moshi
-QALA D'UMTA Chaldean Assyrian American Association,/Chaldean Assyrian Christian Unity POB 12331,     El Cajon, CA 92022
-SCHOLION (Diozese Toronto, Canada B Mar Emmanuel KdO) Etobicoke (1991 ff. Mar Narsay Society     (ass.-engl.syr.
-SHOTAPOUTA (1987-92) Official Literary Organ , AAA of S.CA Inc. 5901 Cahuenga Blvd.,N.Hollywood,CA     91601,USA
-SHRARA  A.U.A. West Chapter,  P.O.Box 6409, Modesto,CA 95355, USA
-SIMAILE  ed. Assyrian Student Club (1989-92 ff.), Cultural Magazine, vol.5,No36,1992 9439 Nerbonne     Ave.Franklin PK,IL 60131
-SOBAYA ATORAYA  Assyrian Student Society,California University, 18111 Nordhoff St., Northridge, CA     91330,USA
-SPARZONA ed. Shimshon David Toma
-STAR OF THE CHALDEANS (1985), Chaldean Apostolic Exarchate of America, 25585 Berg Rd., Southfield,     MI 48034,USA St.THOMAS CHALDEAN CATHOLIC PARISH P.O.Box 240159, Orchard Lake, MI 48324-    0159
-SAINT THOMAS TIDINGS (1992-) A monthl.Newsletter of St.T.The Apostle Assyrian-Chaldean Catholic     Church, 2091 N.Berkeley Ave, Turlock CA 95380, ed. Mikhael K.Pius
-THE CHALDEAN RAY (USA, Warren, Mich. 48092, 29396 Dequendre, Apt.104)
-THE MODERN ASSYRIAN (USA Evanston IL 60204, P.O.Box 1774)
-THE  WAY  (1990-92 ff.) Bulletin of Chaldean Academy, Inc.POB 20316 Ferndale,MI 48220
-TORCH  Assyr.Intern. Magazine 4 lang. (1993) mount. San Jose,ed. George Maragol of 1610 Blossom     Hill, Suite # 3, San Jose CA 95124
-VOICE OF ASSYRIANS (1976 1978/1979-1981) Heritage Organization, 3247 West Bryn Mawr Chicago,IL     60659, USA? ed. Klames Ganje, (1969-91)
-VOICE OF THE ASSYRIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (1987-89) A.N.C.,  P.O.Box 3539, Modesto CA 95352
-VOICE OF THE PARISH (Qala d'Mar'ita) (1987/94) St.Peter & Paul Syrian Orthodox Church 2544 Lois     Lane, Southfield,MI 48075
-VOICE OF THE YOUTH MAGAZINE (1977) Assyrian nationalistic Youth Magazine ?
-ZAHRERA AAA of Chicago, (1971)  1618 W.Devon Ave Chicago,IL 60660, USA


-BABYLON Floor coverings PTY.Ltd., 120 Norton Street, Croydon 2132, Australia
-HOPE P.O.Box 146, 600 Geo. N.S.W. 2034,Australia
-KHOOYADA (UNITY) Assyrian Iraqi Club, Australia, 1977
-KINARAH AAA Nineveh Club, Ltd., P.O.Box 101, Fairfield 2165, Australia
-MARDUTHA Assyrian Sports and Cultural Club, P.O.Box 452, Fairfield N.S.W. 2165 Australia
-NA-GHA  A.U.A. Australian Chapter, P.O.Box 34, Fairfield N.S.W. 2165, Sydney, Australia
-SECRETARIATE  P.O.Box 92, Carlton-Victoria 3053, Australia


                  N   E   W  S       D   I   G   E   S   T


(ZNMN: Minya-Egypt)  On Wednesday an attack on the Coptic Christians in the city of Abu Qurqas, Egypt about 15 miles south of Minya left 9 people dead and 5 wounded.  This was the worst assault against the coutnry's Coptic Christians in five years.  In May 1992, 12 Copts wre killed in another attack in the region. On Friday 3 other bodies of Coptic Christians were found slain in sugarcane fields in the nearby village of El-Zuhair.  Police point to the Islamic Group whose members have declared war on President Hosni Mubarak's government in Egypt.  More than 70 Copts have been slain in recent years.  Islamic extremists consider the Christian Copts to be heretics.  Egypt's Copitc minority is 10 percent of a population of 62 million.  The Coptic Christians,as do Assyrian Christians, trace their church to a few years after the death of Christ.

(ZNDA: Chicago) Within the State Archives of Assyria Project a prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian empire is to be realized in the next three years. This book will both serve as a 'Who's who?' and a traditional name book like e. g. APN or NPN. Also, the book shall be used as a reference book for studies
relating to e. g. a particular profession.
The prosopography will be edited as a set of three volumes consisting of
the catalogue of names (two volumes) and indices of the name components,
the professions and titles and the geographical data (one volume). The
catalogue is to be published in six fascicles, the first of which will go
to press by the end of the year.
Entries for ca. 7000 names have to be written. In order to fulfill this
task we are currently looking for assyriologists willing to contribute
entries. Each entry will be marked by the author's name. The authors are
to receive free copies of the book or at least a substantial reduction on
its price instead of offprints which would be of little use.
The SAA project will provide all working material needed for writing the
individual entries.
If you are interested in contributing to this project, please write to:
                        Karen Radner
                        Department of Asian and African Studies
                        SAA Project
                        P.O.Box 13
                        Meritullinkatu 1B
                        FIN - 00014 University of Helsinki
         C   A   L   E   N   D   A   R     OF     E   V   E   N   T   S
Thru Mar 10             Art & Empire: Treasures from Assyria in the British
                        National Gallery of Victoria
                        Melbourne, Australia
                        Admission: $10.00

Thru Apr 6      The Ain Ghazal Exhibit
                        Smithsonian Institute
                        Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
                Washington D.C.
                        AAA of Southern CA      (818) 506-7577

Mar 12                  Guardians of the Gate:  The Assyrian Winged Colossi
                        Lecturer:  A. Harrak
                        Near and Middle Eastern Civilization
                        University of Toronto
                        St. George campus
                        Toronto, Canada
                        8:00 p.m

April 9                 Recent Excavations at Gordion, Turkey:
                        An Achaemenid Persian Imperial Town in Central  Anatolia
                        Lecturer:  T.C. Young, Jr.
                        Royal Ontario Museum
                        Toronto, Canada
                        8:00 p.m

Aug 26-Sept 2           Assyrian American National Convention
                        Hyatt Regency Dearborn
                        Fairlane Town Center
                        Detroit, Michigan
                        All Single,double,triple,quad rooms: $95 per day
                        Reservations: (313) 982-6880
                        Reservations must be made by August 7.
                               E N T R A C T E
Feb 22                  Assyrian Aid Society Party
                        Church of the East AWANA
                        680 Minnesota Ave
                        San Jose, California
                        7:30 pm
                        Entertainer:  Jenan Sawa
                        Donation: $15.00

                         I N T E L L I G E N T S I A
Fridays                 Assyrian Educational & Cultural Club at
                        Modesto Junior College
                        1:00 pm
                        Founders Hall 108
                        Modesto, U.S.A.

Saturdays               Nisibis School
                        The Church of the East
                        Toronto, Canada

Sundays                 Assyrian Boy Scouts
                        Assyrian American Association of Southern California
                        Assyrian Club
                        5901 Cahuenga Blvd
                        North Hollywood, California
                        9:30am  to 12:30pm
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
                        (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm

                        Assyrian Student Union
                        California State University, Northridge
                        Assyrian American Association of Southern California
                        Assyrian Club
                        5901 Cahuenga Blvd
                        North Hollywood, California
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
                        (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm

      A  S  S  Y  R  I  A  N     S  U  R  F  I  N  G     P  O  S  T  S

POST WHAT YOU MEAN:  go to soc.culture.assyrain and leave a long-lasting
impression.  SCA is fun, informative, and a battleground of ideas with an
in-your-face attitude.

LET YOUR FINGERS DO THE TALK:  For a lively discussion on various topics of
interest to Assyrians connect subscribe to AssyriaLink via allover.com

ASSYRIAN ESPRESSO TO GO:  Visit www.nineveh.com for the latest schedule of
online guests on Nineveh Cafe- a chat room for Assyrian Internet surfers.

                     P  U  M  P    UP THE   V O L U M E

                English         Modern Assyrian

                Salary                  Poor/aa/naa     [M]
                Wage                    Ha/qa           [M]
F = Feminine     M = Masculine      P = Plural
                B  A  C  K     TO THE      F  U  T  U  R  E
B.C. (3000)     By this time the city of Erech or Uruk in southern Mesopotamia
(Bet-Nahrain) has an estimated population of 50,000.

<< Civilization Before Greece & Rome, Saggs>>

A.D. (1919) The average number of Assyrians reported in the Baquba Camp
hospitals is 450, and the birthrate has reached 200 per month.  Earlier in
the year it hardly exceeded 50 or 60 per month.

<< The Baqubah Refugee Camp, Austin >>

                    L    I    T    E    R    A    T    U    S

                            HAMMURABI ON MARRIAGE

If a man has taken someone as a wife but has not drawn up a contract for
her, that woman is not a wife.

If the finger has been pointed against a man's wife in connection with
another man, but she has not been caught lying with the other man, she
shall jump into the holy river for her husband.

<<Babylonians, Saggs>>

           T  H  I  S    W  E  E  K     I  N    H  I  S  T  O  R  Y
February 23, 1915:  Ottoman soldiers carry 60 Assyrian youth, who had taken
refuge in a Catholic church in Urmie, Iran, to an area outside of the city
and massacre them.
                         B     R    A     V     O

                               RAMIN DANIELS

Ramin Daniels, a research engineer at Applied Materials and a ZENDA reader
was cited in last month's issue of CHEMTECH, the magazine of the American
Chemical Society for his contribution to a research article entitled
"Pervaporation for Wastewater Treatment."  Ramin holds a B.S. in Chemical
Engineering from San Jose State University is the editor of the Newsletter
of the Assyrian American Association of San Jose.  Ramin's article
describes a membrane-based technology for the removal of volatine organic
                         the   D I  R  E  C  T  O  R  Y
ZNAD (Assyrian Democratic Organization)
ZNAM (Archeology Magazine)
ZNAP (Associated Press International)
ZNBN (Bet-Nahrain Inc/ KBSV-TV "AssyriaVision")
ZNDA (Zenda: zenda@ix.netcom.com)
ZNMN (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNNQ (Nabu Quarterly)
ZNNV (Nineveh Magazine)
ZNRU (Reuters)
ZNSJ (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNTM (Time Magazine)
ZNUP (United Press International)
ZNUS (US News & World Report)

             W   E   L   C   O   M   E     T O     Z   E   N   D   A
Zenda welcomes our new on-line subscribers from:

                        Chicago, Illinois
                     S     A     L     U     T     E
Zenda wishes to thank the following individuals & organizations whose
contributions appear in this issue:

                        Firas Jatou             Chicago, Illinois