Z E N D A  M A G A Z I N E
[renamed Zinda Magazine in 1999]

Neesan 7, 6746                   Volume III                       Issue 8            April 7, 1997

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       A Weekly Online Publication of the ZENDA Assyrian Newsagency

                      T H I S   W E E K   I N   Z E N D A
The Lighthouse...................... Religious Minority Rights in Turkey
Good Morning Bet-Nahrain............ Western Negotiators Visit the North
                                            INC Press Release
Surfs Up............................ "don't know why they exist."
Surfers Corner...................... Walk For Life
News Digest......................... British Oil Company Eyes Iraqi Oil
Ziggurat............................ No New Entry
Calendar of Events.................. No New Entry
Entracte............................ No New Entry
Intelligentsia...................... Classes and Seminars
Assyrian Surfing Posts.............. Assyrian Internet Conference
Pump up the Volume.................. Expertise and Weakness
Back to the Future.................. Esarhaddon's Superstition
                                            Assyrian Province Under Trajan
Literatus........................... A Prayer to Ashur
This Week in History................ Founding of AUA
Bravo............................... ATRA: Assyrian-Russian Magazine
The Directory....................... News Sources
Bshena.............................. Sun, Miami, and San Jose
Salute.............................. Lena, Eddy, and Firas

                  THE   L   I   G   H   T   H   O   U   S   E


The Constitution establishes Turkey as a secular state and provides for
freedom of belief, freedom of worship, and private dissemination of
religious ideas. The Government generally observed these provisions in
practice. About 99 percent of the population is Muslim. Under the law,
religious services may take place only in designated places of worship.

Although Turkey is a secular state, religious instruction in state schools
is compulsory for Muslims. Upon written verification of their non-Muslim
background, Lausanne Treaty minorities (Greeks, Armenians, and Jews) are
exempted by law from Muslim religious instruction, although students who
wish to attend may do so with parental consent. Syriac Christians
(Assyrians) are not officially exempt because they are not an official
Lausanne Treaty minority. However, according to a church official, because
the community is mentioned in the Treaty, its members have not been forced
to follow any specific curriculum.

Many prosecutors regard proselytizing and religious activism on the part of
either Islamic extremists or evangelical Christians with suspicion,
especially when they deem such activities to have political overtones.
Since there is no law explicitly prohibiting proselytizing, police
sometimes arrest Islamic extremists and evangelical Christians for
disturbing the peace. Courts usually dismiss such charges. If the
prosyletizers are foreigners, they may be deported, but generally they are
able to reenter the country easily.  Twice this year the armed forces
dismissed groups of soldiers for prohibited religious and political
activities. Some of these soldiers have indicated that they will bring
their cases to the European Court of Human Rights.

Most religious minorities are concentrated in Istanbul. The number of
Christians in the south has been declining as the younger Syriac (Assyrian)
generation leaves for Europe and North America. Minority religions not
recognized under the Lausanne Treaty may not acquire additional property
for churches. The Catholic Church in Ankara, for example, is confined to
diplomatic property. The State must approve the operation of churches,
monasteries, synagogues, schools, and charitable religious foundations,
such as hospitals and orphanages.

The Government formed in July has sought a more cooperative relationship
with religious minorities, particularly in Istanbul, according to prominent
members of these communities. The state ministry responsible for the
religious minority communities gave the Armenian Patriarchate permission to
rebuild a church in Anatolia and informed the Patriarchate that requests to
restore some other properties would be approved immediately. These requests
have all been approved without delay.

The authorities monitor the activities of Eastern Orthodox churches and
their affiliated operations. The Ecumenical Patriarchate in Istanbul has
consistently expressed interest in reopening the seminary on the island of
Halki in the Sea of Marmara. The seminary has been closed since the 1970's
when the state nationalized most private institutions of higher learning.

     G  O  O  D    M  O  R  N  I  N  G    B  E  T - N  A  H  R  A  I  N


(ZNUP: Washington)  The Clinton administration, in trying to repair a
fragile alliance between the two major Kurdish political factions, made
scant progress in promoting peace between two Kurdish factions during two
days of meetings in northern Bet-Nahrain, but came away from the talks with
assurances their leaders would meet again this month. Acting Assistant
Secretary of State David Welch and Robert Deutsch, a specialist in Kurdish
affairs, along with their counterparts from Britain and Turkey met Thursday
and Friday at an undisclosed location with leaders of the Patriotic Union
of Kurdistan and the Kurdistan Democratic Party. During two days of
separate meetings with the KDP's Massoud Barzani and his PUK counterpart,
Jalal Talabani, the American, British and Turkish diplomats were only able
to wrest assurances that the two leaders would meet again this month.
Department spokesman Nicholas Burns said last week "The United States
continues to believe that reconciliation and stability in northern Iraq are
in the best interests of all the inhabitants."
A truce between the two factions was broken last year after the KDP, with
help from Iraqi forces, conquered most areas of northern Bet-Nahrain within
the Iraqi territory held by their PUK rivals. The offensive shattered
efforts by the CIA to support Kurdish opposition to President Saddam
Hussein and triggered an American evacuation from northern Iraq of several
thousand dissidents including Assyrian and Kurdish families who remain in
the Pacific island of Guam.

                       London:  4 April, 1997

Following is a stAtement form Ahmad Chalabi, President of the Executive
Council of the Iraqi natiOnal Congress.

"We welcome the visit of Mr. David Welsch and Mr. Robert Deutsch and the
delegation from the US State Department to northern Iraq this week.  This
is the first visit by senior US officials to Iraqi Kurdistan since Saddam's
invasion in August and Septermber 1996.

This trip follows from Secretary of State Albright's statement of policy on
Iraq last week.  It is now clear from all sides that the US will not ever
deal with the regime of Saddam Hussein and that Iraq will only be
reintegrated into the international community under a democratic government
which will follow Saddam's dictatorship.

We call upon all political parties in nothern Iraq to take advantage of
this opportunity to resolve the current stalemate.  The parties must reach
a political settlement which ensures the removal of Saddam's forces from
Iraqi Kurdistan and the demilitarisation of the major cities.  A settlement
must also incloude specific provisions for the revenue of the region to
benefit the people of the region equatably.  We also call upon all parties
to restore Iraqi Kurdistan as a viable base for the Iraqi opposition to
carry out operations against the dictatorship.

For more information contact:   INC Press Office London  (0171) 495-1666

                      S   U   R   F   S     U   P   !

"I agree with Ramin's concerns (ZENDA Vol III,#6) about the state of our
political parties here in the US. I think almost all of our political
institutions have no direction, they are in a state of anarchy and simply
don't know why they exist. Often quarrels and backstabbing are associated
with their activities and the end result is another split. They are
basically in an everlasting identity crisis. In my opinion our political
parties have achieved absolutely nothing of substance for our people. And
I, along with Ramin, hold those Assyrians who have assumed the leadership
positions directly responsible for that. This, also, applies to ZOWAA in
the US.

I feel very strongly that the current ZOWAA leadership is not capable of
conducting itself in a manner to gain the support of Assyrians in general
nor it has the ability to carryout our people's needs in the North. I
believe also there is no willingness to do anything to further the cause of
ZOWAA in the US. Not all of our political parties enjoy a true cause that
ZOWAA here in the United States does. And yet ZOWAA in the United States
has often conducted itself in a manner as if the North did not exist. It
has engaged in prolonged and painstaking arguments and quarrels for reasons
associated with personal issues. This is just not acceptable. Our people in
the North and the lands that we have lived from the beginning are too
precious to let it be undermined and forgotten by the inactivities of so
called their representatives in the US.

The recent events in the North force me to believe that we lost a great
opportunity to better the lives of our people there. Our people suffered,
died, lost their homes, lands, and we in the Unites States watched and
waited for a group of people that call themselves ZOWAA in the Unites
States to do something. But unfortunately ZOWAA in the US has produced
disappointing results.

For this, I agree with Ramin's call for action to have a new ZOWAA
leadership in place in the United States. However I don't believe that one
person should hold so many responsibilities that Dr. Lincoln Malik has
assumed for him. Our problems are too many and I don't think it is fair for
our nation to let one man, as Dr. Lincoln malik has, to take the destiny of
our nation in his hands. Supporting our people in the North and Iraq
requires concerted effort by all Assyrians here in the US. This requires
that the ZOWAA leadership to make it its agenda to work towards reaching an
agreement with the rest of the organizations to work for the cause.
The ZOWAA leadership under Dr. Lincoln Malik is in a patatic stage of a
melt down and it cannot fulfill the needs of our people in the North. And
the reason is that there are simply no able people in the organization.
Many able, willing and ready people were either encouraged to leave the
organization or, on a point blank, were ordered to stop working. A good
case for the latter would be the original chapter in San Jose who were by
all means a good example of seeing people working so well together and
achieving the goals that they had promised to reach. They suddenly
disappeared from the scenes and later we found out they were ordered to
stop working for the organization. I always wondered a good managed
organization would not stop a section where it makes an exceptional
progress. There must be something wrong with that organization if it does.
Stopping this group from continuing their work for our people was, I
believe an action that should be investigated fully and scrutinized as
Ramin points out in his letter."

Sam Shapira
Chicago, Illinois


"Thank you for sending me the new Zenda issue. I was reading the comments
of different Assyrian individuals on ZOWAA, AAS, and the recent rallies of
Gabba Atranaya.  From what I have gathered including in Toronto Canada,
ZOWAA reps in North America made their intentions clear by attempting to
saboutage these rallies.  In Toronto they taught certain individuals to
make comments and/or ask questions to try to bring confusion amongst the
listeners, but in reality it was an embarrassment for ZOWAA. As one
intellectual put it, "It was a political suicide for ZOWAA".  It seems that
anyone that disagrees with anything ZOWAA does and says is a traitor in the
minds of the individuals placed as reps of ZOWAA. They have claimed that
the individuals who are members of Gabba Atranaya are Baathees, when in
fact they have no proof of such thing. Gabba Atranaya does not kiss the
feet of the kurdish occupiers of our ancestral homeland and call it
kurdistan like some other Assyrian Organizations and individuals. Perhaps
that is upsetting the masters of such organizations. It seems the word
DEMOCRATIC that appears in ADM is there for decoration.  This has been
clear by their own actions and mentality.
In an interview of the members of Gabba Atranaya, by a kurdish newspaper,
the interviewer asked "In all of your publications we have not seen any
place the word kurdistan iraq, why is that?" Their reply was, "In the plans
of some of the kurdish political parties is the greater kurdistan, where do
the Assyrians fit in this picture?, Nowwhere in these plans is there a
mention of the rights of the Assyrians, so how can we accept this?" In the
meantime, ADM's publications seem like a  media tool for the kurds and
kurdistan!  Mr. Carlo Ganja's question of the individual giving a lecture
instead of a question was most appropriate, even though Mr. Ganja has
accepted it as a mistake. Sometimes we have to look at the intentions to
make a judgement.

Besides, the kurds have done more harm to the Assyrians in the last six
years than the baath regime in its entire existence. I do not recall any
incident  in any area under the rule of baaths, where Arab mobs of a few
hundreds have taken Assyrian individuals and murdered them in a savage
manner as the kurdish mobs have done. Nor have I heard of any 14 year
Assyrian girl kidnapped by Arab individuals in daylight and forced into
marriage. Such acts of terrorism seem to be a daily part of the kurdish
agenda, and perhaps that is why the kurdish criminals are never punished.

Nenus Younan
Toronto, Canada


"I enjoy reading Lena Mushall's articles in ZENDA.  She writes her articles
in a rational and responsible manner.  I wish if we can find more fine
Assyrian writers as Lena Mushall in ZENDA and in all Assyrian publications.

Ashur Simon Malek
Ontario, Canada


"I've been reading ZENDA since February and I still don't understand why
you keep saying 'Bet-Nahrain' in your articles.  Let me remind your
so-called Assyrian readers that there has never and will ever exist such a
country in the Middle East.  Your attempts to marginalize our struggle in
Kurdistan, with your news articles in 'good morning bet-nahrain' are
rediculously funny.  Give it up zenda and write about the true path to
democracy in the north...and stop filling your readers' minds with
nonsense.  I'm sure they have better things to do with their lives than to
read your boisterous articles every Friday. Long live Kurdistan, long live
Democracy in the Middle East, and happy Norooz to all."

Bashir M.

[Our readers often print out and distribute ZENDA in hard-copy form among
non-internet readers.  All letters to ZENDA, regardless of the commenter's
subscription status, are printed as received.  ZENDA uses the term
Bet-Nahrain (Mesopotamia) in referrence to a geographical (not-political)
area encompassing the rivers Tigris and Euphrates.  This includes
northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Iraq.  As outlined in the
political decrees of certain Kurdish political parties the term Kurdistan
refers to a territory which includes northern Iraq, the whole of southern
Turkey and northern Syria, parts of western Iran, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
ZENDA is published on Monday only.]

                  S  U  R  F  E  R  S      C  O  R  N  E  R

ZENDA readers are invited to respond to the following request(s) by either
directly writing to the author or sending a reply to ZENDA.

"There are many ways to raise funds for our people in Bet-Nahrain, one of
which is to spend a joyful day walking or running for such a great cause.
The Assyrian Aid Society-Santa Clara Chapter invites everyone, ZENDA
readers especially, to participate in this event.  If you wish to join,
please call me or send me an email, and I will gladly mail you a
registration form.  We need your support.  Let us show our unity and our
love for our people through our actions and not by words alone.  Even if
you are unable to attend a small donation would be greatly appreciated. In
these hard times every contribution, no matter how small, counts.  Thank you."

Lena Mushell
San Jose, California
(408) 954-7811

                  N   E   W  S       D   I   G   E   S   T


(ZNUP: London) Lasmo, the British oil exploration and production company,
hopes to do business in Iran and Iraq when United Nations and U.S.
sanctions are lifted, a published report said last week. Lasmo plans to
form a joint venture company in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Syria and eventually in
Iran and Iraq. Conscious of the U.S. sanctions introduced last year to
punish non-U.S. companies which invested $40 million or more a year in the
energy sectors of Iran and Libya, Lasmo does not want to take any action
which might adversely affect its business in the future.  Lasmo already
holds acreage in Libya on which it is planning to drill two wells this
year. Lasmo has established Khaleej Petroleum in Kuwait with a local
partner and hopes to access opportunities in the Middle East through this
company. Northern Bet-Nahrain, based on geological studies, holds rich oil
reservoirs, majority of which remain untapped.

                       Z   I   G   G   U   R   A   T
David Yonan's Konzert:

Sonntag den 20. Juli 1997 um 11:00
David Yonan spielt Geige
Mathaeikirchstrasse 1
im Musikinstrumenten Museum Berlin, Curt-Sachs Saal (dierekt neben der

      C   A   L   E   N   D   A   R     OF     E   V   E   N   T   S
Thru April 27           Masterpieces from the Pierpot Morgan Library:
                        A collection of relics 3300 B.C. to 1800 B.C.
                        Cylindrical Seals
                        From Uruk, Akkadian, Babylonia and Assyria
                        California Palace of the Legion of Honor
                        Lincoln Park, San Francisco.

Thru Fall 1997  Ancient Mesopotamia: The Royal Tombs of Ur
                        2650-2550 B.C.
                        Third Floor

Apr 9                   Recent Excavations at Gordion, Turkey:
                        An Achaemenid Persian Imperial Town in Central Anatolia
                        Lecturer:  T.C. Young, Jr.
                        Royal Ontario Museum
                        Toronto, Canada
                        8:00 p.m

Apr 11-13               Big Bear Ski Trip
                        Skiing, hiking, Mountain biking, etc.
                        Assyrian Student Union Big Bear Trip
                        Members $40  non-members $65
                        Includes lodging, transportation, and 1st night's food.
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis:  fishtale@juno.com

Apr 13                  The 18th Anniversary Celebration
                        Assyrian Democratic Movement
                        A Political Rally
                        The Assyrian American Association
                        20000 Almaden Road, San Jose
                        6:00 pm

Apr 24                  Beginning of Settled Village Life in Eastern Anatolia

                        Dr. Michael Rosenberg
                        Associate Professor, University of Delaware

                        6:00 p.m.
                        Reception Follows
                        Rainey Auditorium
                        Free (215) 898-4890

May 4                   "Near Eastern Archeology"
                        Speaker:  Dr. Thomas E. Levy
                        University of California, San Diego

                        Location:  Westchester, New York
                        Call Hugo Vandenwall Bake (914) 472-0874

May 5                   "Near Eastern Archeology"
                        Speaker:  Dr. Thomas E. Levy
                        University of California, San Diego

                        Location:  Tufts University, Boston
                        Call Jodi Magness (617) 628-5000 x2680

May 23-26               Assyrian State Convention of California
                        Turlock, California

May 24                  A C N C '97
                        The Third Assyrian Community Networking Conference
                        The Assyrian State Convention of California
                        Turlock, California
                    Organized by The Assyrian Community Networking Society

Jul 20                  A Concert by the Assyrian Violinist, David Yonan
                        Mathaeikirchstrasse 1
                        Musikinstrumenten Museum, Curt-Sachs Saal
                        11:00 am

Aug 26-Sept 2           Assyrian American National Convention
                        Hyatt Regency Dearborn
                        Fairlane Town Center
                        Detroit, Michigan
                        All Single,double,triple,quad rooms: $95 per day
                        Reservations: (313) 982-6880
                        Reservations must be made by August 7.
                               E N T R A C T E
Apr 26                  A Cocktail Dance Party
                        5th Anniversary of the Assyrians Around the World
                                TV Program
                        Entertainers:  Julian Jindo
                                        Julian & Janan Band from San Diego
                        Hyatt Hotel
                        1740 North First Street
                        San Jose, California
                        (408) 993-1234
                        Tickets:  Etminan Market & United Foods
                         I N T E L L I G E N T S I A
CHICAGO         Assyrian Athletic Club Soccer Development Program
                        Ages 7-14
                        7:45-9:45 pm
                        Warren Park Gymnasium
                        Western Avenue & Devon Street

HARVARD UNIVERSITY      1997-98 Syriac Classes Taught by Dr. J.F. Coakley

                        Elementary Syriac
                        Instructor:  J. F. Coakley
                        Basic Syriac grammar and syntax
                        with selected readings from the Syriac Bible and
                        other early texts.

                        Readings in Syriac I
                        Historical and theological texts, and early poetry

                        Readings in Syriac II
                        Special attention to exegetical texts and to reading                    manuscripts.

MODESTO         Assyrian Educational & Cultural Club at
                        Modesto Junior College
                        1:00 pm
                        Founders Hall 108
                        Modesto, U.S.A.

NORTH HOLLYWOOD     Assyrian Boy Scouts
                        Assyrian American Association of Southern California
                        Assyrian Club
                        5901 Cahuenga Blvd
                        North Hollywood, California
                        9:30am  to 12:30pm
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
                        (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm

                        Assyrian Student Union
                        California State University, Northridge
                        Assyrian American Association of Southern California
                        Assyrian Club
                        5901 Cahuenga Blvd
                        North Hollywood, California
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
                        (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm

SAN JOSE                Nisibin School
                        Assyrian Language Classes
                        Ages 5-14
                        10:00-1:00 pm
                        AAA of San Jose BETA
                        20000 Almaden Road

                        Raabie Nimrod Simono's Intermediate Grammar Class
                        AAA of San Jose BETA
                        ONLY IN MARCH
                        Class Days Vary (Contact ZENDA for more information)

                        Maestro Nebu Issabey's Nineveh Choir Practice
                        AAA of San Jose BETA
                        8:00 pm

TORONTO         Nisibis School
                        The Church of the East
                        Toronto, Canada

      A  S  S  Y  R  I  A  N     S  U  R  F  I  N  G     P  O  S  T  S

For review an update and receive a registration form to attend this years
Assyrian Networking Conference in Turlock, California see:  http:\\www.nineveh.com

                     P  U  M  P    UP THE   V O L U M E

                English         Modern Assyrian

                Expertise               mshaal/tdoo/taa [F]
                Weakness                Nvee/loo/taa            [F]
F = Feminine     M = Masculine      P = Plural
                B  A  C  K     TO THE      F  U  T  U  R  E
B.C. (680)  Esarhaddon, king of Assyrian, begins his 11-year rule from
Nineveh.  He is reputed to have been extremely superstitious and much under
the influence of magicians and exorcists.

<< From Distant Days, Foster >>

A.D. (115)  The Roman emperor Trajan creates the Province of Mesopotamia
which included Nisibin (Nisibis) and Singara.

<< The Roman Near East, Miller >>

                    L    I    T    E    R    A    T    U    S
                             A PRAYER TO ASHUR

This prayer was once inscribed on the pavement of a palace gate at
Dur-Sharukin (Khorsabad), an Assyrian city built by King Sargon II in 710's

May Ashur, father of the gods, look steadfastly with the radiance of his
holy features upon this palace.  may its rnewal always be ordered, until
distant days.  Let it be established from his holy utteance that protective
spirit and safeguarding god be on the watch day and night within it and
never leave its sides.

At his command may (these words)fall, "May he who made a frow old, far into
the future." May he who dwells therein rejoice within, in good health,
happiness, and blithe spirits.  May he enjoy well-being in full measure.
           T  H  I  S    W  E  E  K     I  N    H  I  S  T  O  R  Y
April 10, 1968:  The Assyrian Universal Alliance, the first world-wide
Assyrian political organization, is founded in Pau, France.

                         B     R    A     V     O


ATRA, a new Assyrian Magazine, entirely published in Russian, is currently
in circulation.  ATRA is produced in St. Petersburg and Chicago under the
direction of its editor, Mr. Basily Shoomanov.  To subscribe contact the
editor at:

1138 West North Shore #5A
Chicago, IL 60626-4640

or call (312) 465-0327


                         the   D I  R  E  C  T  O  R  Y
ZNAD (Assyrian Democratic Organization)
ZNAM (Archeology Magazine)
ZNAP (Associated Press International)
ZNBN (Bet-Nahrain Inc/ KBSV-TV "AssyriaVision")
ZNDA (Zenda: zenda@ix.netcom.com)
ZNMN (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNNQ (Nabu Quarterly)
ZNNV (Nineveh Magazine)
ZNRU (Reuters)
ZNSJ (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNTM (Time Magazine)
ZNUP (United Press International)
ZNUS (US News & World Report)

             W   E   L   C   O   M   E     T O     Z   E   N   D   A
Zenda welcomes our new on-line subscribers from:

                                Sun Microsystems
                                Zellweger Analytics, Inc.
                                San Jose, California
                                Miami, Florida
                     S     A     L     U     T     E
Zenda wishes to thank the following individuals & organizations whose
contributions appear in this issue:
                        Lena Mushell            San Jose, California
                        Eddy Williams           Chicago, Illinois
                        Firas Jatou             Chicago, Illinois

A full report on the spectacular Kha b'Neesan 6747 Celebrations in Chicago.