Z E N D A  M A G A Z I N E
[renamed Zinda Magazine in 1999]

Neesan 21, 6746                   Volume III                       Issue 10            April 21, 1997

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       A Weekly Online Publication of the ZENDA Assyrian Newsagency

                      T H I S   W E E K   I N   Z E N D A
The Lighthouse...................... Empire Struggles Back
Good Morning Bet-Nahrain............ US Lawmakers, Saddam Must be Punished
Surfs Up............................ "You have proven me wrong."
Surfers Corner...................... New Assyrian/Chaldean Radio Program
News Digest......................... Jan Toma, Assyrian Artist Passes On
                                            Kha b'Neesan Celebrations in Germany
                                            Islamists' Attack on Egypt's Copts
                                            Shamasha Namato Lectures in Canada
                                            Last of Assyrians & Kurds Leave Guam
Ziggurat............................ No New Entry
Calendar of Events.................. No New Entry
Entracte............................ No New Entry
Intelligentsia...................... Classes and Seminars
Assyrian Surfing Posts.............. Aramaic Bible Society
Pump up the Volume.................. Joint and Cartilage
Back to the Future.................. Ashurbelkala and Isaac of Nineveh
Literatus........................... St. Ephraim's Evening Prayer
This Week in History................ Dr.Grant, American Missionary
Bravo............................... Shamasha Namato
The Directory....................... News Sources
Bshena.............................. San Jose & Sweden
Salute.............................. Emanuel, Adrin, Firas, Ninus, Odet, &

                  THE   L   I   G   H   T   H   O   U   S   E

                          EMPIRE STRUGGLES BACK
                 An L.A. Times Article:  26 February, 1997; B4

Madlen Zango carries the weight of a nation on her shoulders.  her new
Year's resolution is to increase the exposure of a 7,000-year-old ethnic
group that few in Los Angeles realize live among them.  It is an ambitious
goal, she knows, about as easy as rebuilding the Tower of Babel.  "People
ask me, 'You Assyrians still exist?" said the 39-year-old Granada Hills
woman. "I tell them we are the ones left over from the Babylonians."

Since her inauguration last year as president of the Southern California
Assyrian American Association, Zango's efforts have earned her the
affectionate title "Queen of Assyria," after the legendary Queen Shamiran
who reigned around 800 B.C.  She has organized fundraising efforts to
remodel the group's 32-year-old cultural center and has hosted local and
nationally known Assyrian poets, artists, composers, and choirs.  She has
invited local officials, including Los Angeles County Supervisor Mike
Antonovich, to tour the center and meet members of the Assyrian community.

Yet like many leaders of immigrant groups, Zango seeks a balance between
protecting traditions and integrating her community into the mainstream.
Her ancestors, fierce conquerors of the ancient world, have left behind
only fragments of their past: the sundial, for example, and the carved
stone images of winged lion, a symbol of royalty.  A reminder of their
influence can be seen on the walls of the Citadel factory outlet mall in
the City of Commerce, a landmark off the Santa Ana Freeway [I-5].  The
former Firestone tire factory site is a replica of the palace of King
Sargon II who ruled the Assyrian empire from 721 to 705 B.C.

Largely ignored because of their small numbers, Assyrians have been in
America since the late 19th century, said Zango.  But theirs has remained a
fragile community, one with no home country to call their own, and only an
ancient language left to define them.  Once the most feared nation in the
Biblical world- forcing others to adopt their customs- the Assyrians of
Southern California now struggle to preserve what is left of their identity.

Many still hold Dokhrana, a religious gathering that includes a sacrificial
offering of lamb stew.  At church-sponsored picnics in the summer, youth
perform Shekhanni, the dance of their forefathers.  Assyrians celebrate
their New Year on April 1, the day they say "when nature wears new
clothes."  In her office near the Assyrian Cultural Center on Cahuenga
Boulevard, piles of the organization's newsletter Shotapouta, meaning
association, are ready to be mailed.  A small wooden plaque that reads "The
Boss" rests at the edge of her desk.  The title is unusual, said Zango, the
first woman to lead an Assyrian American association in the U.S.

"In the Assyrian community, in the Middle Eastern community, a woman is on
the second step," she said.  Yet Zango is quick to add that there was
little opposition to her election as president, earned after several years
as treasurer for St. Mary's Apostolic Assyrian Church of the East in North
Hollywood. She is an accountant who, like many Assyrians, fled Iran 19
years ago in the wake of the Ayatollah Khomeini's rise to power.  So far
her gender has not been a handicap...

Differences in religion and nationality have often divided them in the
past.  In Los Angeles County, where the 1990 U.S. Census reports that 3,000
of the nation's 51,765 Assyrians reside, there are three main churches
serving the community: Apostolic, Roman Catholic, and Church of the East.
Their nomadic lifestyle has produced a community of people with different
nationalities, language backgrounds and ideologies, said Zango.  As a
result, Zango said, "It's very hard to please people with different
thoughts, religions; the Assyrians from Iran, and the Assyrians from Iraq."

...Mehdi Bozorgmehr, a sociology professor at City College, City University
of New York, who has edited a book titled "Middle Eastern Diaspora
Communities in America," said Assyrians are not as widely known because the
population is scattered and small.  There remains a confusion in the minds
of many between Syrians and Assyrians.  Bozorgmehr said most Westerners
don't distinguish among different Middle Eastern groups, making it
"complicated to know who Assyrians are."

Anthropologist Arian Ishaya, who teaches California history at UC Santa
Cruz, said fear of discrimination, as well as a history of persecution,
makes Assyrians hesitant to reveal their community to outsiders...During
research on her dissertation at UCLA, Ishaya traced the migration patterns
of Assyrians throughout Northern California and discovered at least five
generations had settled in the U.S. since the late 19th century.  During
that time, Assyrian families moved to Northern California and bought small
farms and vineyards.  Others worked in San Francisco hotels.

Since settling in the U.S. many fear losing their most important cultural
distinction, which is their language, Ishaya said.  The Assyrian language,
derived from Aramaic, was spoken in the time of Christ.  The lack of
Assyrian schools is "causing a degeneration among the new generation," said
Ishaya, who is of Assyrian descent. "It creates this poverty of knowledge
in our community, especially our language.  We are losing our language
because it is not studied."  The prospect is especially chilling, she said:
"We've lost our country, our nation.  Our language is the only thing left
that identifies us as Assyrians."

...In California, Assyrian communities are thriving in Stanislaus County
where about 5,000 reside.  The community there has its own local television
programs, said Zango.  Elsewhere in the U.S., Assyrian neighborhoods can be
found in Michigan and Illinois.  Rep. Anna G. Eshoo(D-Palo Alto), who is of
Assyrian descent, has made several requests to the Clinton Administration
for the security of Assyrians still left in Iraq who continue to suffer
under Saddam Hussein's regime, said Zango...

There are also plans to build an Assyrian library in memory of Paul Alex
Youhanian, an 11-year-old Valencia boy who was fatally wounded in a
drive-by shooting in North Hollywood last October.  After her term ends,
Zango hopes more Assyrian women will take an active leadership role in
their community.  "A woman president is like a woman in the house," she
said.  "When there is a woman in the house, there is a sense of warmth in
that house."

Susan Abram
Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
     G  O  O  D    M  O  R  N  I  N  G    B  E  T - N  A  H  R  A  I  N


                                  Voice of America
                      16-Apr-97 8:25 PM EDT (0025 UTC)

A group of prominent US lawmakers and human rights activists have launched
a campaign to bring Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to justice.  They
believe the Iraqi leader and his associated should be held accountable for
genocide committed before and after the 1991 Gulf War.  Voice of America's
Maxim Kniazkov has details:

The campaign follows last month's remarks by US Secretary of State
Madeliene Albright, in which she made clear the Clinton Administration
intentions to keep pressure on Baghdad as long as Saddam Hussein remains in
power.  On Wednesday, the Chairman of the House International Relations
Committee, Benjamin Gilman, displayed Congressional solidarity on the issue
by making this remark: "The Congressional Human Rights Caucus, of which I
am proud to be a member, will soon introduce a resolution calling for the
establishment of an international tribunal to hold Saddam and his regime
responsible for war crimes and related offenses."

US lawmakers and human rights activists say Saddam Hussein and his
associates bear direct responsibility for the disappearance of more than
180-thousand Iraqi Kurds.  They say Iraqi forces used chemical weapons
against civilians and destroyed at least 45-hundred villages in their
effort to stamp out the Kurdish national movement in the late 1980's.
Representative Gilman says the United States has tons of Iraqi documents
detailing Baghdad's atrocities not only in Iraqi Kurdistan but also in
other regions.

The evidence to indict Saddam Hussein and its his top aides for war crimes
and crimes against humanity is overwhelming.  Reports from victims, from
eyewitnesses indicate willful killings, torture, rape, pillage, hostage
taking and associated crimes not only against the Kurds in the North but
also against the Shia Arabs of the southern marshes and, of course, against
the people of Kuwait.  The Clinton Administration was quick to applaud the
effort to expose Iraqi crimes against humanity.  Deputy Secretary of State
Strobe Talbott sent the initiators of the campaign a letter, which was read
by his representative, Steve Coffey, at a new conference Wednesday.  The
United States government supports the efforts of "indict" and others to
document Iraqi war crimes and to establish an internationally recognized
record of them.  An international record of Iraq's violations of
international humanitarian law can be part of an overall effort to help the
victims of repression find solace and to prevent the recurrence of these
abuses in the future.  However, the carefully-worded letter sidestepped a
delicate question of whether the Clinton Administration will actually adopt
demands for the indictment of Saddam Hussein.  Some members of the UN
Security Council, France, Russia and China, have already made clear they
are against escalating confrontation with Iraq, as did some Arab countries.
                      S   U   R   F   S     U   P   !
"Many thanks for depicting the Assyrian Parade through vivid imagery and
thoughtful prose. Unfortunately, I did not get a chance to see the
parade this year, but I can say that I caught glimpses of it as I read
your visionary article.  Keep up the good work, I am VERY PROUD of you."

Nadia E. Joseph
Chicago, Illinois

[We look forward to proudly waving the banner of ZENDA on a float in the
upcoming Kha b'Neesan Parade in Chicago!]


"Correction! The Assyrian Community Networking Conference will be held on
Sunday , May 25 at the Red Lion Hotel.  All participants will receive a
free T Shirt and a free Assyrian fonts disk-a gift from Nineveh On Line.
The T shirts are donated by a supporter, George Harrier of Chicago.
Vxtreme ( Live audio and Video ) from Sunnyvale and Hollister Internet will
also participate in this event.  Looking forward to meeting you all."

Albert Gabrial
ACNC 97 Organizing committee
Turlock, California


"Avveetoon baseeme, I don't know any German, but it's great to try reading
it and seeing how many words are distinguishable.  In the meantime, I'd
appreciate it if you posted the fact that the Chicago Historical Society,
located at North Avenue and Clark Streets on the north Side of Chicago,
have two recently published books that deal with early Assyrian settlers in
Chicago.  I have purchased and read one of them that sells for about $17
called "ETHNIC CHICAGO" 'a complete guide to the many faces and cultures of
Chicago, 2nd edition, by: Richard Lindberg. published by "Passport Books,
Lincolnwood, IL."  I was a bit disappointed that the author, who I know,
did not consult with me except telling me that he was commissioned by the
city to write the book; for if he had allowed me to read his manuscript
before publication, I would have been able to correct some of the necessary
errors he has made in describing the Assyrians and their history and get
the Assyrian New Year word "Kha'b'neesan) correctly spelled.  I suggest
that anyone purchasing and reading the book should write and refer Mr.
Lindburg to some of our scholars at the JAAS to give him a better
perspective on our civilization and culture."

Paul D. Newey, Esquire


"Mr. Ben Samuel's comments regarding the failure of ZOWAA's representatives
outside occupied Assyria, is not totally true. The reason I say this is due
to the fact that it is the leadership of ZOWAA, that chose to have members
and representatives in the West when all the Assyrian Political Parties
requested that they abstain from such action and allow the other Assyrian
organizations to be their voice and support in the West.  It is also a fact
that it is ZOWAA's leadership that chose their representatives in the West.
These representatives reflect the policies and mentality of ZOWAA's
leadership as well as follow their orders. ZOWAA, or the movement in its
re-emergence during the Gulf War not only pumped new blood in the bodies of
the Assyrian activists and the nationalists that had lost hope, it also did
a great job in protecting our brethren in the homeland as well as
organizing them. The sad part that followed, in my opinion, is the
megalomania that overtook the ranking file of ZOWAA, perhaps their
upbringing in the dictatorship atmosphere is the reason, but in my opinion
they slowly sought after the sole representation of our people and anyone
that portrayed a challenge they labeled as a traitor, or an agent. The
second mistake was the Assyrian Aid Society being the charitable arm of
ZOWAA. I say it was a mistake for many reasons. The contribution of our
people in support of their brethren in the homeland through this
organization is limited to their views of ZOWAA. When dealing with
finances, as we all know, we are fast to believe rumors of theft, and
misappropriation of funds even if all evidence points to otherwise, and any
such rumor reflects directly on ZOWAA. Also AAS, being the visible
representative of ZOWAA, turned the movement into a pure charitable
organization, somewhat of a beggar, and our people in the West have grown
tired of being solicited for donations, especially if the results are not
visible or touchable. I found ZOWAA's representatives to be using the
divide and conquer, belittle the others and ascend, tactics which has
caused the loss of trust in ZOWAA.  After all these representatives are
mostly the failures of other organizations, or the escapees to the west for
a better personal life, chasing status within the community by tagging on
the tailcoats of the new political wave after a dormancy that followed the
destruction of AUA in the mid 80's.

In conclusion, ZOWAA re-emerged as the hope of the Assyrians, in a very
short time, and in two situations humans lose grip on reality is in the
process of ascending or descending at a fast pace. Unfortunately, those so
called politicians sitting on the table with it, for their own selfish
reasons are blinding ZOWAA, to the sad reality therefore depriving them from
seeing the necessity for badly needed changes."

Nenus Younan


"When Nineveh collapsed in 625B.C. at the hands of our enemies, we lost
our empire however we never lost our hope nor did we lose our ambition to
keep our culture and language alive.  Historians, educated and lay people
with different levels of familiarity of Middle Eastern history believed
that Assyria and Assyrians vanished from the face of the earth.  After
losing our country, our history shows us that we searched and hoped for a
party to unite us and to get our rights back. In 1979, something small,
something hidden away in peoples mind and heart became alive.  It started
among friends, behind close doors and in darkness.

Today, 18 years after planting this small seedling, we see it has
grown to a strong, powerful and shining tree of hope.  Zowaa is that
Tree, it gives our people hope for unity and freedom.  Zowaa is an
answer to the prayers of generations of our people.  Zowaa is what our
ancestors tried to achieve and gave their life for.

Last Sunday, April 13, a small group of people gathered at the Assyrian
American Association  of San Jose to celebrate the birth of this hope.
Even though the number of attendees was small, the love and devotion of
those present created a warm atmosphere.  The meeting started half an hour
late while everyone was waiting for Jackie Bejan, VP of AAA and Sargon
Yalda, president of AAA, of which neither showed up.  Their lack of
interest and respect for the celebration was disappointing to everyone
present in the meeting.  The mediator asked Mr. Ator Paul, a member of AAA
to step in and represent AAA.

Rabi Tobia Giwargis, a well known Assyrian writer was the next to speak on
this event.  He was followed by Mr. Carlo Ganjeh representative of Assyrian
United Organizations of California(AUOC)?. He expressed that he always
thought that Zowaa started a new page in our history in the 70's and has
completed the goal that our people started in 50's and 60's.  Mr. Ganjeh
also mentioned that Zowaa as a party in Northern Iraq has worked hard and
is the true reason of the survival of our nation.  He also mentioned that
Zowaa is the way to help us to regain our country and we should all work
for Zowaa and not to become an obstacle to prevent  Zowaa  from achieving
its goal.

Mr. Daniel Benjamin from Assyrian Around the World T.V, Rabita Evelyn,
Rabi Micheal Younan, Mr. Ben Samuel were others who spoke on different
issues and their hope for future.  I, representing the Assyrian Aid
Society, Santa Clara County Chapter also expressed the needs of our people
in the homeland "Bet Nahrain" and stressed that it is our duty to support
them.  Mr. Edward Chalaby, the representative of Zowaa in San Jose
after he spoke, invited Mr. Viladimir Betlachin, Zowaa's representative in
the Central Valley (Modesto, Turlock...)CA to speak. Mr. Betlachin in his
presentation stated that last year was a difficult one for our people.  He
denied the rumors that Zowaa is dead and that it's forces have ran away to
other countries  by announcing the participation of more than 12000 people
in 1 Nissan in North of Iraq.  Mr. Betlachin also talked about Ain-Kawa.
As some of you may know,  this city has a large population of our Chaldean
brothers.  In 1992, they refused to get involved with Zowaa.  Today after 5
years, 6000 people went to  the streets to celebrate 1 Nissan.

When Saddam attacked Arbil, they were the ones who sheltered our Zowaa
members in their homes and kept them safe.  He mentioned that in Northern
Iraq there are no divisions among our people due to their political
interest or tribalism.  They have achieved the level of political
understanding which unfortunately, we, those who live in west, have not
been able to achieve.  He also talked about the Audio tape that was
distributed in CA by a group who are asking Mr. Clinton to get our nation's
right from Saddam. He continued by brining examples from our history and
how never in history no country has shown any compassion for us.

Mr. Betlachin also denied the allegation that Zowaa is asking Kurds to
help them with our fight for Assyrian nation.  "Zowaa is not connected
to any country or group or anybody, Zowaa is relying on our own people.  We
never take sides.  We have learned our lessons from history".  In response
to those who question "what  has Zowaa done?", Mr. BetLachin  said: " We
are human, and like all other human beings we make mistakes, but we will
not sell our goal and our nation.  Zowaa works only for SHOSHATA OF OMTA
ATORETA (progress of the Assyrian nation) No matter if Saddam takes over
Northern Iraq or not.  Most of our people are residing in cities, They work
under cover.  If it is necessary we will work under cover again.  They can
kill us, Jail us and torture us as they have been doing, but they can not
take our KHYORTA TAKHMANTA (freedom of thought).  The presentation ended
with refreshments.

Lena Mushell
San Jose, California


"A gathering at the AAA of San Jose took place on Sunday , April 13th. @
7:00PM , to celebrate the 18 th. anniversary of the birth of ZOWAA and I am
glad I went. It gave me a chance to hear all the facts from Mr. Ladimer
Lachin ( Representative of ZOWAA in CA.) and to those of you who are
interested to know , ZOWAA is alive,  it always was and it always will be.
Because principles , faith and true love of this nation will not be sold by
these true Assyrians. Some issues I have to mention :

- This event was hosted by AAA of San Jose , where were Sargon Yalda
(President) or Jackie ( vice president) of the club ?
- ?@?@? , and if I am not mistaken  Mr. Carlo Ganjeh a very short time ago
wrote so badly about ZOWAA and Dr. Lincoln Malik , stood today unshameful
praising ZOWAA and it's leadership!! I feel sorry for you Carlo .
 God bless our nation.
Frederick Aprim
San Jose, California

[As we have repeatedly noted in the past it is our policy to print all
material as received in our mailbox, unless it contains personal attacks to
an individual.  We have replaced Mr. Aprim's derogatory comments of Mr.
Ganjeh, president of the Assyrian United Organizations of California, with
?@?@?.  Our reader was asked to retract his comments and re-write his
message. As one reader put it eloquently:  "May ZENDA never become the
"Jenny Jones" of the Middle Eastern news media."  We thank Mr. Aprim for
the following comments received after our sincere request.]

"I am very concerned and distressed about your respond to my article
which I sent to you on April 14 th. regarding the zowaa's 18 th.
anniversary, in refusing to print my point of view unless certain changes
are made to it. I thought that zenda was the only Assyrian independent
voice we had ,well sir you have proven me wrong. I do not think that I was
that rough on Carlo Ganjeh , I only mentioned the facts. And if you are not
bias as you are trying to tell me when you say that you will not print
anything that is sort of an insult to any other zenda reader , I wonder how
Mr. Carlo Ganjeh's article was printed in your zenda vol. III , # 7 on
March 31 , 1997  and in it he called Dr. Lincoln Malik a dictator,  is this
how you are going to use zenda as one of your associates Ramin Daniels put
it in zenda III , # 6  and I quote " Forum for Accountability" . I just

[The term "dictatorship" as used by Mr. Ganjeh is made in reference to Dr.
Lincoln Malik's leadership style.  On the contrary, Mr. Aprim's naming of
an animal in reference to Mr. Ganjeh (not printed in ZENDA), is simply
injurious and a personal attack on Mr. Ganjeh's character.  We apologize to
Dr. Lincoln Malik and Mr. Carlo Ganjeh if our attempt to justify our
position brings disservice upon their roles in the local and national arena
of the Assyrian politics.]


"Frederick,  I regret I was not able to attend, but thanks for a true and
accurate report.  I can personally attest to the fact that those two men
(from The Club) you mentioned have been known for years to very politely
politically correct, and I have concluded, that the younger one emulating
the older one however I am surprised how at least one of those two men you
mentioned behaved, and I don't believe it was a change of heart or that
he is finally seeing the light!"

Esha Tamras
San Jose, California

[Mr. Tamras had read Mr. Frederick's "pre-ZENDAnized" message on the
AssyrianLink service].


"I like Zenda very much. It's very informative and wonderful Electronic
News Service. I'm very proud of you.  Can you tell me why I am getting
ZENDA II over and over. This is the third time I'm receiving it. please
don't send it again. I can't even read or understand the language.

Janine Jacoby
Phoenix, Arizona


Thanks for sending part 2 again.  It's really a shame it did not succeed
again this time !  I guess I just have to live without part 2 !!!
Thanks for trying it over and over again anyway !!

Peter de Rooij
Almere, Holland

[Last week most of our readers received Part I of ZENDA only.  We submitted
Part II several times of which only a small portion of ZIGGURAT was
received. If you are still not in receipt of last week's Part II please
contact us immediately.  Again, we apologize for any inconvenience.]


"There is something I would like to say to Mr. Bashir M. from Michigan:
According to Prof. Martin van Brunissen, FU-Berlin, there was a Kurdish
State in 1946 in Iran just for a year, but nothing more in the history!! On
the other hand we can find written documents as late as Pliny (06.30.117):
'The whole of Mesopotamia once belong to the Assyrians.'"

Adrin Takhsh
Berlin, Germany

                  S  U  R  F  E  R  S      C  O  R  N  E  R

ZENDA readers are invited to respond to the following request(s) by either
directly writing to the author or sending a reply to ZENDA.

On April  11  1997  " Ishtar Voice From Detroit" started broadcasting
in Assyrian &  Chaldean every Friday From 7:00 TO 9:00 P.M. local time
on 560 AM radio.

Alexander Yousif

                  N   E   W  S       D   I   G   E   S   T


(ZNDA: San Jose)  Jan Toma, a prominent Assyrian painter, passed on to
immortality on Friday, April 18, in San Jose, California.  Jan began his
art training in the form of an apprenticeship with Andre Gualievich, in
Leningrad Academy of Art.  Jan often applied the ideas of the academic
schools of Europe to the oriental motifs and aesthetic expressions.  He
traveled extensively to Europe and later moved to Argentina where he lived
for five years and painted the primitive lives of the indigenous people of
the north.  In 1955 Jan Toma moved to the United States where his work has
been exhibited in several one-man shows and galleries. Among some of Jan's
other artistic projects are his design of the late William Daniel's
monument in San Jose and the illustrations used in Mr. Daniel's "Tapestry."
Fred Parhad, the famous Assyrian artist and sculptor, is Mr. Toma's nephew.


(ZNDA:  Berlin)  On Sunday, 30 March, nearly 1000 Assyrian-Germans and
their guests from other European countries, celebrated Kha b'Neesan in
Wiesbaden, Germany.  The event was organized by the Assyrian Aid Society
(Assyrische Hilfverband Deutschland e.V.)   The Babylon Band and Evin
Aghassi provided the entertainment. Mr. Zaya of Munich and Ms. Adrin Takhsh
of Berlin, a ZENDA staff member, were the Masters of Ceremony. A
traditional Easter egg-fight for the enjoyment of the youngsters and a
raffle were organized for the evening.  This evening's guests of honor
bestowed the winners' cups to the six Assyrian teams who had won in the
annual Kha b'Neesan Games.  At midnight the leaders of the Bet-Nahrain
Society and Assyrian Aid Society wished the attendees a happy Assyrian New
Year. Music and Assyrian folk dances continued until 2:00 am.

On April, 5th, another New Year Party was organized by Bet-Nahrain
Society in Wiesbaden. Entertainers, Gaudi Hanna of Sweden and Nahrin from
Wiesbaden, celebrated Kha b'Neesan with nearly 500 Assyrian guests. As
usual the celebrations included Assyrian Folk music and dances. Bet-Nahrain
children's choir recited a few Assyrian songs and the Bet-Nahrain Youth
Dance Group presented a dance number.  The next day,  ABGAD society in
Wiesbaden invited it's members to celebrate both Assyrian New Year and
Easter. About 50 Assyrians from Wiesbaden and the vicinity attended this
event. Ms. Adrin Takhsh's informative lecture on "The New Year Ceremonies
in Ancient Assyria" was followed by a reception.


(ZNRU: Egypt) Amgad, a Christian from a village in middle Egypt, has been
in hiding in Cairo for more than a year, another victim of a protection
racket that is tearing apart the social fabric of his birthplace. What did
the trick for Amgad was the third threatening letter from the Gama'a
al-Islamiya (Islamic Group), Egypt's largest Islamist militant
organization. The Islamists, starved of funds for their campaign of
violence against the government, had picked on him as a source of finance
on the pretext that Egypt's Christians should all be paying gizya, the
ancient Islamic tax on non-Moslem subjects. Copts, members of the Christian
minority that has survived centuries of Moslem domination, say the police
are doing nothing about it. The practice appears to be confined mainly to
the central provinces of Minya and Assiut, where the proportion of Copts is
especially high and where the Gama'a is most active in fighting
the government. In the bishopric of Qusiya, a Nile Valley town 300 km (185
miles) south of Cairo, the gizya racket has become routine for many of the
100,000 Coptic residents, says Bishop Thomas. The bishop, who has kept
track of more than 100 villagers forced to pay, suggested that extortion by
local bosses was now more pervasive than that by the Islamists. There have
been two massacres this year -- one of 10 young Copts in a church near Abu
Qurqas and one of 13 people, eight of them Copts, in a rampage through the
streets of a village near the southern town of Nag Hammadi.

(ZNDA: Ontario) The Assyrian Society of Canada, in Mississauga, Ontario
hosted a presentation on Shamasha Lawrence Namato's "Teach Yourself
Assyrian" Compact Disc. Mr. Youel Sarkis' opening remarks includes his
gratitude, on behalf of the Society's members, for Shamasha Namato's
diligence in creating a new medium of learning of the Assyrian language.
Dr. Guliat Nissan, who introduced the main speaker, and Dr. Amir Harrak, a
professor at the University of Toronto were among the honored guests.  Dr.
Harrak suggested that a similar project be undertaken to teach Classical
Assyrian.  To date over 700 copied of Shamasha Namato's CD's have been sold.


(ZNUP: Washington) The last of 6,600 Assyrian and Kurdish refugees who
were brought to Guam from Iraq for political asylum are leaving the
island. The Pentagon says it's wrapping up the 218-day Operation Pacific
Haven, which began September 16. The humanitarian effort gave the refugees
shelter, food, clothing, medical care and classes aimed at helping them
adjust to life in the United States.  Some Assyrian families have already
been moved to Texas. David Johnston, who ran the INS aspect of the
operation, said a streamlined asylum process allowed the refugees access to
the United States in 90 to 120 days. The usual procedure, which includes
background checks, medical exams and designation of mainland sponsors, can
take as long as two years. Washington spent more than $10 million in the
local communities to support the operation. All people and gear assigned
specifically for Pacific Haven are expected to be off Guam by the end of
the month.

                       Z   I   G   G   U   R   A   T

David Yonan's Konzert:

Sonntag den 20. Juli 1997 um 11:00
David Yonan spielt Geige
Mathaeikirchstrasse 1
im Musikinstrumenten Museum Berlin, Curt-Sachs Saal (dierekt neben der

      C   A   L   E   N   D   A   R     OF     E   V   E   N   T   S
Thru April 27           Masterpieces from the Pierpot Morgan Library:
                        A collection of relics 3300 B.C. to 1800 B.C.
                        Cylindrical Seals
                        From Uruk, Akkadian, Babylonia and Assyria
                        California Palace of the Legion of Honor
                        Lincoln Park, San Francisco.

Thru Fall 1997  Ancient Mesopotamia: The Royal Tombs of Ur
                        2650-2550 B.C.
                        Third Floor

Apr 24                  Beginning of Settled Village Life in Eastern Anatolia

                        Dr. Michael Rosenberg
                        Associate Professor, University of Delaware

                        6:00 p.m.
                        Reception Follows
                        Rainey Auditorium
                        Free (215) 898-4890

May 4                   "Near Eastern Archeology"
                        Speaker:  Dr. Thomas E. Levy
                        University of California, San Diego

                        Location:  Westchester, New York
                        Call Hugo Vandenwall Bake (914) 472-0874

May 5                   "Near Eastern Archeology"
                        Speaker:  Dr. Thomas E. Levy
                        University of California, San Diego

                        Location:  Tufts University, Boston
                        Call Jodi Magness (617) 628-5000 x2680

May 23-26               Assyrian State Convention of California
                        Turlock, California

May 25                  A C N C '97
                        The Third Assyrian Community Networking Conference
                        The Assyrian State Convention of California
                        Turlock, California
                    Organized by The Assyrian Community Networking Society

Jul 20                  A Concert by the Assyrian Violinist, David Yonan
                        Mathaeikirchstrasse 1
                        Musikinstrumenten Museum, Curt-Sachs Saal
                        11:00 am

Aug 26-Sept 2           Assyrian American National Convention
                        Hyatt Regency Dearborn
                        Fairlane Town Center
                        Detroit, Michigan
                        All Single,double,triple,quad rooms: $95 per day
                        Reservations: (313) 982-6880
                        Reservations must be made by August 7.
                               E N T R A C T E
Apr 26                  A Cocktail Dance Party
                        5th Anniversary of the Assyrians Around the World
                                TV Program
                        Entertainers:  Julian Jindo
                                        Julian & Janan Band from San Diego
                        Hyatt Hotel
                        1740 North First Street
                        San Jose, California
                        (408) 993-1234
                        Tickets:  Etminan Market & United Foods
                         I N T E L L I G E N T S I A
CHICAGO         Assyrian Athletic Club Soccer Development Program
                        Ages 7-14
                        7:45-9:45 pm
                        Warren Park Gymnasium
                        Western Avenue & Devon Street

HARVARD UNIVERSITY      1997-98 Syriac Classes Taught by Dr. J.F. Coakley

                        Elementary Syriac
                        Instructor:  J. F. Coakley
                        Basic Syriac grammar and syntax
                        with selected readings from the Syriac Bible and
                        other early texts.

                        Readings in Syriac I
                        Historical and theological texts, and early poetry

                        Readings in Syriac II
                        Special attention to exegetical texts and to reading manuscripts.

MODESTO         Assyrian Educational & Cultural Club at
                        Modesto Junior College
                        1:00 pm
                        Founders Hall 108
                        Modesto, U.S.A.

NORTH HOLLYWOOD     Assyrian Boy Scouts
                        Assyrian American Association of Southern California
                        Assyrian Club
                        5901 Cahuenga Blvd
                        North Hollywood, California
                        9:30am  to 12:30pm
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
                        (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm

                        Assyrian Student Union
                        California State University, Northridge
                        Assyrian American Association of Southern California
                        Assyrian Club
                        5901 Cahuenga Blvd
                        North Hollywood, California
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
                        (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm

SAN JOSE                Nisibin School
                        Assyrian Language Classes
                        Ages 5-14
                        10:00-1:00 pm
                        AAA of San Jose BETA
                        20000 Almaden Road

                        Maestro Nebu Issabey's Nineveh Choir Practice
                        AAA of San Jose BETA
                        8:00 pm

TORONTO         Nisibis School
                        The Church of the East
                        Toronto, Canada

      A  S  S  Y  R  I  A  N     S  U  R  F  I  N  G     P  O  S  T  S

Aramaic Bible Society            http://www.messianic.com/Aramaic/

                     P  U  M  P    UP THE   V O L U M E

                English         Modern Assyrian

                Joint                   shaa/ree/ta             [M]
                Cartilage               khaas/khoo/saa  [M]
F = Feminine     M = Masculine      P = Plural
                B  A  C  K     TO THE      F  U  T  U  R  E
B.C. (1074) Ashur-bel-Kala comes to power and makes an entente with
Marduk-shapik-zeri, king of Babylon.

<< The Might That Was Assyria, Saggs>>

A.D. (7th Century)  Isaac of Nineveh, is ordained Bishop of Nineveh by the
Catholicos Mar Giwargis (George).  After holding his office for only five
months, he resigns and goes away to live in the mountains. His "Mystical
Treatises" are intended for the guidance of ascetics and the mystics.

<< Syriac Mystical Literature, Wensinck>>

                    L    I    T    E    R    A    T    U    S

O Lord, may I remember the day of my death,
And feel remorse; and let trembling seize me,
For I know that I am about to be judged
By a great Judge, in Thy presence.

O Lord, I have thought upon my end,
And trembling and remorse have seized me
Lest I should be condemned for my wickedness;
If the angels are moved with fear
And the ranks of the spirits tremble,
I should earnestly pray to Thee.
Save me and have mercy upon me.
           T  H  I  S    W  E  E  K     I  N    H  I  S  T  O  R  Y
April 24, 1844:  dies, Dr. Asahil Grant, American Missioner in Urmie, Iran.
 His controversial beliefs that modern Assyrians were the descendants of
the lost two tribes of Israel were vehemently attacked by Western and Near
Eastern scholars.
                         B     R    A     V     O

Congratulations to Shamasha Namato on the sale of the 700th Compact Disk
entitled "Teach Yourself Assyrian."  ZENDA only hopes that other
programmers are currently considering the production of similar educational
softwares and compact disks on Assyrian language, stories, arts, history,
and religious customs.

                         the   D I  R  E  C  T  O  R  Y
ZNAD (Assyrian Democratic Organization)
ZNAM (Archeology Magazine)
ZNAP (Associated Press International)
ZNBN (Bet-Nahrain Inc/ KBSV-TV "AssyriaVision")
ZNDA (Zenda: zenda@ix.netcom.com)
ZNMN (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNNQ (Nabu Quarterly)
ZNNV (Nineveh Magazine)
ZNRU (Reuters)
ZNSJ (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNTM (Time Magazine)
ZNUP (United Press International)
ZNUS (US News & World Report)

             W   E   L   C   O   M   E     T O     Z   E   N   D   A
Zenda welcomes our new on-line subscribers from:

                                San Jose
                     S     A     L     U     T     E
Zenda wishes to thank the following individuals & organizations whose
contributions appear in this issue:
                        Emanuel Kamber  Western Michigan University
                        Adrin Takhsh            Berlin, Germany
                        Firas Jatou             Chicago, Illinois
                        Ninus Younan            Ontario, Canada
                        Odet Toma               Milpitas, California

and the following individual(s) for introducing ZENDA to our new readers:
                        Rita Pirayou            San Jose, California