Z E N D A  M A G A Z I N E
[renamed Zinda Magazine in 1999]

Tamuz 28, 6746                   Volume III                       Issue 23            July 28, 1997

       A Weekly Online Publication of the ZENDA Assyrian Newsagency

                   T H I S     W E E K     I N     Z E N D A

The Lighthouse.............    The Codes of Hammurabi
Good Morning Bet-Nahrain...    More Assyrians Arrested in Syria
                Assyrian Case Noted in the Human Rights Report
                Saddam Reveals His Gulf War Strategy
Surfs Up...................    "Father Benny is a saint"
Surfers Corner.............    Sheet Excitement at the AANF National Convention
                Assyrian Mother in Need of Bone Marrow Transplant
                A Delicious Discovery
                Assyrian Short Story Writer Gets Published
News Digest................    Iraqi-International Sympos on Mesop. Cultures
                The New Syrian Orthodox Diocese in Germany
                The Third Volume of Subartu Series
                Mathematics in the Ancient World
                Maronites Celebrate Lebanese Heritage Day in PA
Ziggurat...................    Neue Syrisch-Orthodoxe Dioezese Fuer Deutschland
Calendar of Events.........    The Massacre at Semel: A Two-Parts TV Program
Entracte...................    No New Entries
Intelligentsia.............    Meetings and Seminars
Assyrian Surfing Posts.....    Microsoft's The Age of Empires
Pump up the Volume.........    Disaster & Fortune
Back to the Future.........    Hammurabi's Oath & the Seven Sacraments
Literatus..................    Marduk-Zakhir-Shumi
This Week in History.......    The Great Exodus of 1918
Bravo......................    Madlen Zango Goes to the Capital
The Directory..............    News Sources
Bshena.....................    Our New Corporate, University, & Private Surfers
Salute.....................    Firas, Gabrial, Raman, Wisam, Francis, Raman,                 Lena, and Yolanda

                THE   L   I   G   H   T   H   O   U   S   E

                         THE CODES OF HAMMURABI

Babylonia was one of the most ancient and powerful empires that ruled on
this planet.  Even though today not everyone remembers the old Babylonian Dynasty, it was one of the first empires to have an organized government and a set of laws for its inhabitants to follow.  In fact the Code Of Hammurabi is considered to be one of the first documents ever written from the practice of law.  Hammurabi, the sixth of eleven kings in the old Babylonian Dynasty, wrote the document in 1728 B.C.  The document contains 282 different laws which not only explain the laws of the land but at the same time explain the rights of different classes of the people that lived in Babylonia.  The Code of Hammurabi was similar to our constitution here in America in that it was a written set of fundamental principles by which Babylonia was governed.

One of the main principles in the Code Of Hammurabi was the intolerance for thieves and liars.  According to the laws, anyone caught stealing from church or state, both the thief and the one receiving the stolen goods were put to death.  The same rules applied for lying in a court of law, or starting a false report by wrongfully accusing someone of a crime without being able to prove the accusations in a court of law.  Moreover all the cases in Babylonia were brought in front of a panel of judges where no one was guilty until proven so by substantial evidence in a court of law, much like our system on innocent until proven guilty here in the United States.  At the same time since these laws were written in the 1700's B.C., the death penalty was used often by the panel of judges as a punishment for various criminal acts.  An example of a criminal act was helping a male or a female slave escape through the city gate.  The basic structure of the government was to help protect its people and especially its soldiers in time of hardship.

For instance, the government would financially help the family of a soldier who was on duty by the King's orders.  Furthermore, the King wrote several laws to settle differences between traders and merchants, and wrote fixed interests on loans given to merchants by the traders. Hammurabi also wrote several laws to protect a wife in case of divorce from her husband, where he had to pay his wife the marriage-price and give her back all her belongings.  Lastly, Hammurabi wrote laws dealing with physicians and how they were paid different amounts of money for performing the exact same operation but on different classes of people.

The basic structure of the Hammurabi government was that everyone would be given a fair chance to present his case in a court in front of a panel of judges.  Therefore, accusing someone would not have been sufficient if the accuser did not have enough evidence and witnesses to prove his or her case.  If the accuser failed to prove the wrong doing of the accused in a court of law, the accuser was put to death.  Also, it was clearly evident in the laws written by Hammurabi that he had a very low tolerance for liars and false accusations in a court of law since he punished all liars with the death penalty.  Even though this might seem as a harsh method to deal with perjury in a court of law, nevertheless in those days extreme measures were needed to get the complete truth out of everyone in court.
The penalty was as harsh if he stole a pig or a sheep from another man in the community.  At the same time if a man was caught stealing from another man's burning house, the robber was thrown into the fire.  This law would have made a great difference during the LA Riots, where everyone was stealing from innocent store owners and then setting the place on fire.  In my opinion, the laws of Hammurabi were too harsh, today in the 20th century we can not punish criminals so severely. However, if we had tougher laws, crime rates in this country would decrease rapidly.

The Babylonians had strong beliefs toward God.  Although Hammurabi lived about 2000 years before Christ, he had some of the same beliefs. Hammurabi believed that people should not lie or steal, and also that children should respect and honor their parents.  Hammurabi had similar beliefs as Jesus Christ when it came to respecting your parents, but he took that belief to a greater level.  He wrote a law that if a son ever struck his father, his hand must be cut off.
Hammurabi also believed in protecting his people with his laws.  He wrote a law that if a man swears to God and gives his word that his property was stolen, the governor of that city must repay him of his loss.  This shows how much the King honored the honesty of his people.  Furthermore, if a debt was outstanding against a farmer, and a flood had ravaged or through lack of water grain had not been produced in the field, the farmer did not have to make any return of the debt to the creditor that year  and must pay no interest for that year.  This proves that the Babylonian government almost 4000 years ago helped protect its people more than the banks would here in the U.S. today.  As an example if the same incident occurred here today, that farmer might have lost his farm and all of his assets.

Hammurabi also believed that a wife should be respected to a great extent as long as she was faithful to her husband and helped with the housework. As a result he even wrote a law saying that if a man wanted to divorce his completely faithful wife, he had to pay a divorce-settlement and support her children.  We have the same law in effect here in America, but in those days if the ex-husband had failed to support his wife's children he was put to death.  But if a wife is ever caught having an affair, with enough evidence present, the judge would sentence the wife and her lover to be tied up and thrown in the water to die.  These are very harsh laws against adultery, however in contrast to the U.S. that does not have any laws concerning adultery, it explains why the divorce rate in the U.S. was over 80% in the 1990's.

One of the last problems that I came to in the Code Of Hammurabi dealt with how much the physicians were paid according to which class of people they treated.  For example, if a physician set a seignior's broken bone, the patient must give five shekels of silver to the physician, where each shekel equaled five grams.  If it was a member of the commonality, he would receive only 3 shekels of silver.  And if it was a Seignior's slave, the owner of the slave gave two shekels of silver to the physician.  I believe that this philosophy is wrong since the doctor performed the same procedure on all three patients, yet he received different salaries for his work according to the classes of his patients.

Anobel Tamrazi
San Jose, California

Pritchard, James. 1958.  The Ancient Near East, Princeton University
Press, USA.

[Mr. Anobel Tamrazi is a pre-medical student at San Jose State University and the 1996 winner of the William Daniel Scholarship Award presented by the Assyrian American Association of San Jose.  Mr. Tamrazi and his family live in San Jose, California.]


    G  O  O  D    M  O  R  N  I  N  G    B  E  T - N  A  H  R  A  I   N


The following is a press release of the Assyrian International News Agency
on July 21, 1997:

Following the arrests of Mr. Bashir Saadi, Mr. Yonan Talya, and Mr. Aziz
Ahi by the Syrian authorities on June 24th and 25th, two additional
Assyrian Christians were apprehended on the following day. Of the two, one
was released within one day when it was confirmed that he was simply the
driver of the trucks purchased by the Assyrian Democratic Organization
(ADO) for transportation of potable water to the Khabor region. The
remaining prisoner, Mr. Khananisho Karimo, is also a member of the ADO and
remains incarcerated till today along with the other three members.

All four men are being held in Kamishli without access to an attorney. They
are not allowed family visits and no information is available on their
general well being. They have not had a formal hearing despite being
incarcerated for nearly one month.

Concern for their well being has been heightened following the transfer of
one of the captives, Mr. Yonan Talya to the hospital on July 18, 1997.
Apparently, Mr. Talya's physical health had dramatically deteriorated while
in prison. The prison physician was unable to care for Mr. Talya. He
consequently spent one and a half days in the hospital before being
transferred back to the prison. Mr. Talya was not known to have had any
preexisting medical conditions and it is feared that his hospitalization
was possibly related to injuries sustained during his incarceration.

(ZNDA: Chicago)  The following statement was made in the July 22nd report of the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs entitled "United States Policies in Support of Religious Freedom: Focus on Christians":
"Our human rights objectives are also advanced through U.S. assistance programs to organizations that monitor and promote human rights, facilitate cultural and educational exchanges, and strengthen the rule of law, justice, civil society and good governance. The U.S. Government encourages other sectors of society, including the U.S. business community and the labor movement, to help advance human rights."  The report continues: "And we support international broadcasting programs that disseminate human rights information throughout the world, including in countries where individual liberty and freedom are restricted...The U.N. Special Rapporteur on Iraq and others report that the Iraqi government has engaged in various abuses against the country's 350,000 Assyrian Christians. Most Assyrians traditionally live in the northern governorates, and the Government often has suspected them of 'collaborating' with Kurds. Assyrians are an ethnic group as well as a Christian community. They speak a distinct language--Syriac--which is banned de facto in public. The U.N. Special Rapporteur reported continued discrimination and persecution against Assyrians throughout 1996. Other sources also report that the Government continued in 1996 to harass and kill Assyrian Christians throughout the country, using forced relocations, terror, and artillery bombardments." The report has failed to mention nearly one million Assyrian-Chaldeans in the Central and Northern Iraq and refers only to the Assyrians of non-Chaldean-Catholic religious affiliation.


(ZNMN: San Jose)   Iraq's strategy in the Persian Gulf War envisioned a huge infantry battle that would overwhelm the United States' superiority in weapons and military technology, President Saddam Hussein wrote in an article published last week in Cairo, Egypt.  Instead, the U.S.-led coalition fought from a distance with an intensive air campagin, Saddam wrote in the article, which was published in all official Iraqi newspapers.

                       S   U   R   F   S     U   P   !

"Father Benny visited San Diego few weeks ago and due to his busy schedule
didn't stay here that long.  The Chaldean/Assyrian people in San Diego,
donated over $15,000 just in two days after hearing about the condition of
our brothers and sisters in Georgia.  In my eyes, father Benny is a saint
who is sent by God to help these people.  May God bless him and bless all
of our people."

Vivian Hammi
San Diego, California


"Bravo Zenda, Thank you!  You're issue dedicated to Mtakasta was so inspiring [Vol III, #21; 7/14/97].  I finally saw the kind of potential that our leadership can have.  And I want to thank Mr. Ninos Gaboro especially,
for being so candid about our leadership's shortcomings--it is rare amongst the heads of our organizations to be critical and introspective and Mr. Gaboro was a refreshing change!  Zenda, this was one of your highlights!
a new Mtakasta-admirer,"

Vivian Hermiz
Berkeley, California


"The last issue of Zenda was interesting reading. In Toronto, a similar gathering was organized in celebration of 40'th anniversary of establishing ADO. Mr. Abjar Maloul was the guest speaker. He basically conveyed the same message as Mr. Ninos Gaboro, with the exception that Mr. Abjar did not elaborate on the accomplishments of ADO, rather on the shortfalls and failure of our Political Parties, as they failed to establish any form of Political Rights for our nation in the Homeland. It was interesting when asked, what has ADO has done in today's iraq, and Mr. Maloul, replied that one of the accomplishments of the ADO group in today's Iraq was to help establish ADM, the representative of ADM, quickly asked, "Can you name them?" and the widow of Martyr, Hubert displayed a gesture of surprise and doubt, an attitude of denial, that is the product of the ailment that plagues most of the members of almost all of the Assyrian organizations, an ailment that can be best described by a few words "My Organization, My Gabba".  Mr. Maloul also mentioned that we must learn that disagreement on certain issues should not be taken by anyone that M'Takasta hates any other organization, particularly ADM.

Another shift in policy, His Grace Mar Emanuel, sent their representative,  Kasha Yonan Marwan, to bless and convey his best wishes to M'takasta on this memorable day. Kasha Younan Marwan prayed for the success of ADO and gave a fifteen minute speech touching on many interesting subjects.  Mr. Hormiz Aboona, an educated Assyrian in the History Department also gave a speech on the Recent Events surrounding the Unification of our Churches, with a warning that the direction taken today, would result in the Assyrian Bishops having to answer to the Pope in the future. He also warned of that changing the language of the Church in USA to English is detrimental to the existence and continuance of the Assyrian Nation in Diaspora. Congratulations to Our Assyrian Political Parties for their survival in a nation that has been deprived of its National Pride, persecuted to the point of accepting slavery as a way of life, shattered by forced divisions and worst of all, denied any form of continuous education. Hope and will can find the means to lead us to ASSYRIA FOR ASSYRIANS."

Ninos Younan
Toronto, Canada


"I recently got back from my vacation and upon reading the above mentioned Vol.III, Issue 20 of your ZENDA weekly newsletter I was greatly saddened when I read your foot note that the very well written essay. "A Prognosis through Diagnosis" was written by the LATE Malcolm Karam. (emphasis added).  Mr. Karam, an Assyrian/American intellectual (chemical engineer) and product of fine Assyrian heritage (his father was a highly respected M.D. in Iran) has been a close friend of mine for better than 40 years.  When I read your identity of him as the "LATE" Malcolm Karam, I assumed that he had died; because the use of that word (LATE) as a prefix to ones name means the person is deceased.  For this reason I believed that he had passed on to his reward during the time of my vacation, because I had talked to him in the latter part of June and he was doing well but staying home because of his bad case of arthritis. However, I assumed that something worse had happened to him, God forbid, during my absence from Chicago.  In my attempt to verify his alleged demise, I first tried calling Homer Ashurian, with negative results.  So I thereafter took a chance of upsetting his daughter by phoning his home. To my surprise, elation and delight, Malcolm answered my call and I happily congratulated him on still being alive and explained  the reason I
was so concerned about his health and welfare. Therefore, I think it might be well if you correct the record by indicating in your next issue that Mr. Malcolm Karam, an Assyrian giant of intellect, morality, virtue, decency, is still alive, doing well and kicking.  I hope this fine friend of all Assyrians lives (he is now an octogenarian and my elder - I'm 83) for many more years to come and regret that he is not on the net so that he could receive and read your excellent publication from week to week."

Paul D. Newey  (aka Polos Nweeya)
Chicago, Illinois

[ZENDA stands corrected!  Our sources in Chicago had indicated that Mr. Karam had passed on in 1994.  We sincerely apologize to Mr. Malcolm Karam, his family, and our good friend, Mr. Paul Newey.  To redress any emotional pain that we may have caused, upon the receipt of Mr. Karam's postal address, we will regularly forward hard copies of ZENDA to his attention as an honorary subscriber.]

                  S  U  R  F  E  R  S      C  O  R  N  E  R

ZENDA readers are invited to respond to the following request(s) by either
directly writing to the author(s) or sending a reply to ZENDA.



A 36-years-old Assyrian mother in London, England is in desperate need of a life-saving transplant operation.  Karmela Darmozadeh has left her two children in Iran for her treatments in London.  Her brother has already been determined as a "suitable match" for her bone marrow transplant operation.  Her treatment will cost $80,000 and her hospital is not proceeding with her treatment unless it is guaranteed that all her costs will be paid in due time.  For more information and your generous support contact Midyat Yadeqar at yadegar@ica.net . ZENDA has received the following email from M. Yadeqar:

"...You have no idea how desperate we are to come up with this money for Karmela. She is very sick and there isn't much time left. The only thing that bothers me the most is that everything is setup and she has the perfect match, unlike most people who have trouble finding a match, but the major block thing is money.

I am begging you to help Karmela as soon as you can. You can even get some legal paper to be signed by her to pay back the Assyrian organizations that are willing to help. The problem is she has to have the transplant done now. I have all the hospital's papers as to how much these procedures cost and how bad her health situation is. Please let me know where to fax them and I'll do it right a way.

Her telephone number in London at her brother's place(Joseph) is
011-44-181-202-2549. Her hospital, Guy's Hospital (Nuffield House)
telephone no. is 011-44-171-954-4745. She lives at her brother's place at:

I also sent a fax to Assyrian American Civic Club in California today.
Please let me know if there is any hope by the end of this week. If you need any more information please send me e-mail or contact me collect by calling (416)750-7371. Please, Please help us save Karmela!"


Alas the summer is coming to a close, and what better way to close it than
attending the 64th Assyrian American National Federation Annual National
Convention held at the Hyatt Regency of Dearborn Michigan from August 27th
through September 1st, 1997.

Everyone here in Detroit is busy hustling for this wonderful event about to
take place, a convention unlike any other. We have heard and read enough criticism about these conventions, but it's strange how the only people who have anything to say about it are the ones who are never there!  We must realize that for many people, this convention is almost like a giant family reunion. We see family and friends we haven't seen in years and it is a wonderful feeling to be able to be with people that have the same habits, the same ideas, and even the same dreams. Assyrians coming together, laughing, crying, partying, playing, and even praying together.

This is the one time a year when everyone on the outside(Non-Assyrian) gets
to take a look inside and gain knowledge and understanding about who we are
and where we come from. We must learn to look beyond the pettiness of minor
errors that occur, and learn from each one of them. This event is the largest gathering of Assyrian people from all over the world. Let's take advantage of that fact. Let's enjoy it and learn from it and when we leave the 6 day event take what is worth taking and with a breath of fresh air, blow the rest away....

We are all working very hard to make this Convention a most memorable one. We have many activities and functions planned so that you will never have a
spare minute. As you will see your days and nights will be filled for the
whole family! Detroit is a great place to see so make your vacation plans,
make your hotel reservations and come and enjoy the end of the summer with
us. Wednesday August 27th our opening ceremony is a very special one. We will be having several singers and a parade of villages from Iraq and Iran. We are inviting everyone to share in these festivities and if you have clothing from your village than bring them with you and let us know where you are from!!! Thursday August 28th in the day there will be NEC meetings going on, a wonderful Assyrian Dance Workshop so you never have to sit at another party again!! you can dance allnight!!! We will also be having an Educational Film Presentation. Of course the Bazaar will be going all day and the Party begins at night!!! Friday August 29th is the start of a wonderful weekend! We have an Assyrian Art workshop going on to bring out your artistic talents, Assyrian Dance Workshop just in case your 2 left feet haven't adjusted properly, A Film Presentation and Educational lectures by some very intelligent speakers,(not that the rest of us are anything less.) We are also presenting Journey Back Exhibition where we will go back in time............ but all you gambling fanatics, bring your stampers for.........BINGO, yes that's right, If you can't learn to dance the shakhani after all you can still win at Bingo!! The evening will close with a great party and all you teenagers and young adults don't worry, cause you don't have to spend the whole evening with mom and dad introducing you to all your relatives that used to be in the same village cause we have a Party that's just for you... Disco ...Disco ...Disco...where you can meet other Assyrians and have a great time!! Saturday August 30th we start the day off with Art and Dance workshops, a Film presentation, Lectures all afternoon but wait if you still need to be entertained we have a Fashion Show Luncheon with a famous international designer from New York.  The Bingo fanatics can try their luck once again today, and all of you who have brought children with you, we have fun filled entertainment for them also today.

TCBY yogurt will give away 500 cups of frozen yogurt on Saturday afternoon.
Also Borders Book store will have storytellers, games and a coloring contest
for all our young Assyrian artists. 3-12 yrs old. You can go back in time
once again for the Journey Back Exhibition, hit the Bazaars, and then prepare yourself for not 1 but 2 parties Saturday night and that's beside the ongoing Disco party that the kids never came out of on Friday!!
Sunday August 31st we will begin the day with a Holy Mass in Assyrian. Then
we will go on to a meeting of the Federations around the world.  The students of our society will have a chance to win a wonderful scholarship at the Youth Excellence Awards Program.  The Detroit Institute of Arts will conduct a class for children and the A and W Bear will pay them a visit with some yummy root beer for all our thirsty young rugrats!!!  And the tradition continues with the closing of the hotel stay with our annual Presidential Dinner Banquet. A separate party will also be in progress for those who do not wish to attend dinner.

Monday September 1st.(Labor Day) our picnic ceremony that will close the
convention will be held at Camp Dearborn. We will have entertainment all day
from our singers and there will be  Carnival rides and games for children of
all ages, and a dunk tank for our dear President and others who are willing
to be so brave. Needless to say, The NEC meetings will be everyday in the mornings, and we will also be conducting Soccer, Basketball, and Volleyball tournaments Friday Saturday and  possibly Sunday. The Bazaar will be ongoing for the 5 days at the hotel and the picnic on Monday. We will have mirrors from our major corporate sponsor Anheuser-Busch depiction of Ashurbanipal as our raffle prize each night at the party. We will also have available Babysitters in the hotel for the 5 day period. We can only be successful if everyone puts forth an effort to make it successful.

Instead of sitting back and criticizing all that is done, come to our
convention, and make yourself heard. Give us your opinions and suggestions.
Let us know what we are doing that is good and also what we are doing that
needs to be changed or improved. Let's all start doing something constructive for our nation, and for each other and remember "To serve is beautiful, but only if it is done with joy and a whole heart and a free mind."

To reserve rooms at the Hyatt Regency Dearborn, please call 313-982-6880. The Hotel occupancy for our convention is ahead of previous years as of now, so react fast and reserve your rooms.

If you need additional information you can call the General Convention Chairman Atour Golani or myself, Janey at 313-274-4545 anytime or fax inquiries to 313-274-6734. You can also reach us via e-mail at jgolani@aol.com or golani@pt0228.pto.ford.com, also you can contact us via convention@aanf.org and/or chairman@aanf.org.

Thank you

Janey Golani
Detroit, Michigan

[For a complete listing of events see SCHEDULE OF EVENTS


"I recently learned about a book that was published Mrs. Norma S. George, a member of the AUA Foundation in Chicago.  The book is entitled "Assyrian Mother's Cookbook-Our Heritage".   This book is not only full of Assyrian recipes, it is also a history book.  It contains a few photographs of
some of the Assyrian ladies in Chicago dating back as early as 1920's, it also contains Family Trees of some of Chicago Assyrians who financially backed the publishing of this book, and some dedications to mothers and
relatives, these two were a means of obtaining enough funds to complete the task of publishing this book.

The "Assyrian Mother's Cookbook-Our Heritage" is of the best print quality books I've seen published in the Assyrian community.  I want to urge ALL Assyrians to make sure they have a copy in their homes, send a copy to your loved ones, mothers, aunts, cousins, and even younger Assyrian women, it is something to be proud of and share not just with Assyrians but also with Non-Assyrians.

It is worth mentioning that the proceeds from the sale of this book were designated to be used to help Needy Assyrians around the world.

The book can be purchased from Norma S. George, 4905 W. Coyle, Skokie, IL 60077.  The cost of this book is a well spent and very much worth the value
of $35.00 + $3.00 for shipping charges.  Believe me it will be a purchase you will never regret and instead by very proud of.

I only regret that I just learned about this book, two years after it's publishing in 1995!

I wonder what other more important issues the AUA Foundation and the Ashour
Banipal Library have had on their plate to allow them to keep the Assyrian public in the dark from such a wonderful and valuable historical and informational publication.  I only hope that a large number of Assyrians write for a copy of the book, so that this may encourage them to let the public know of what is going on in our community.

To help spread the news, please forward this information to any other Assyrians you are in contact with, who are not on this link, you'll be proud in spreading the news."

Esha Tamras
San Jose, California


A new universal writer is born.... read his first book "Comedy Show"... nine
short stories revealing what powerful creative writing is all about... eight
everyday life constructive, humorous and humanistic short stories and the
ninth one is something else: "OQ 172"... a science fiction longer story it is, but unlike the other science fiction stories... a search for immortality it is.

Orahem Candle writes with such ease and fertile imagination and a kind of music in his mind and heart is materialized as words throughout his writing.  Born in Baghdad of Assyrian parents. He has been living in London since 1970.  "First sight" is about two young hearts falling in love while on the train.  "Comedy Show" will make you laugh and laugh and feel at home with the audience.  "Waiting" will make you smile in agreement about how the commuters suffer while hoping to reach their distinations.  "Rosy" will make you live some frightening moments when football hooligans rush and get on the train.  "True Story" will prepare you for the extra capabilities of human mind.  "Boxing" will make you wonder, after crying inside and maybe shedding some tears, if we are being wise, as a human race, when we are allowing two people shaking violently each other's brains and sometimes seeing one of them killed or crippled for life.  "OQ 172" is a present from a philosopher to the whole human race.
Write your cheque (£4.99 + £1 P&P or equivalent currency) to be paid to:
Orahem Candle
71 Gonville Crescent
Northolt, Middx.
United Kingdom

                 N   E   W  S       D   I   G   E   S   T


(ZNDA: San Diego) Under the aegis of His Beatitude Mar Raphael I Bidawid, the Patriarchs of the East, the Iraqi Academy of Science, universities, and foreign institutes, universities, and academic bodies specializing in the heritage of the East,  Mesopotamia (Beyn An-Nahreyn) Magazine is announcing
an international symposium to be convened on the occasion of the Silver Jubilee (25 years) of its inception as the Mesopotamian Culture and the Church of the East from September 16 through 20, 1997:

General Program in Baghdad
Tuesday 16 September
    Introduction and Lectures in the Auditorium of Iraqi Academy of     Science(at Waziriya).
    Reception and Special Program at the Babylon Chaldean Club

Wednesday 17 September
    Lectures in the Auditorium of the Babylon College of Philosophy and     Theology

Thursday 18 September
    Travel from Baghdad to Mosul.

General Program in Nineveh
Friday 19 September
    Lectures in the Auditorium of the University of Mosul

Saturday 20 September
    Lectures at the Monastery of The Lady [Deyr as-Sayyida] in Alqosh

An open invitation is extended to anyone with a research paper on any of the topics mentioned in this annoucement.  For More Information contact Reverend Joseph Habbi, Ph.D.
c/o  Pontific  Istituto  Orientale
     Piazza  S.  Mara  Maggiore, 7
     00185  ROMA,  Italia
     Telephone: (06) 446-5589
     Fax: (06) 446-5576


(ZNDA: Germany) On Sunday 18 May, a new diocese was established to
administer all Syrian Orthodox churches in Germany. H.E. Mor Dionysius Isa Gürbüz (formerly Patriarchal Assistant) was enthroned as the bishop of Germany at the Mor Aho Church in Paderborn. The ceremony was officiated by the former Archbishop Cicek with the assistance of Mor Dioscoros Benyamen,
Patriarchal Vikar of Sweden and in the presence of several Syrian Orthodox priests and thousands of faithful in Germany. German officials and representatives of other German churches attended the ceremony. The new
Archbishop's seat is not decided but it is likely to be at the Mor Yakub of Sarug's monastery in Warburg.

[Note:  in Assyrian-Western Dialect "mor" >> Saint, Most Revered; same as in Assyrian-Eastern Dialect "mar & mart".]


(ZNDA: Chicago) The European Centre for Upper Mesopotamian Studies is pleased to announce the publication of the third volume of the Subartu series:
M. Lebeau & A. Suleiman (editors) & C. Bluard, J. Bretschneider, M. Debruyne, G. Jans & M.-E. Stenuit (co-    editors) ;

Tell Beydar, Three Seasons of Excavations (1992-1994). A preliminary Report,
Trois campagnes de fouilles a Tell Beydar (1992-1994). Rapport preliminaire,
= Subartu III, Brepols Publishers, Turnhout, 1997, 243 pp.
To order contact Johan Van der Beke (Brepols Publishers),
e-mail address:  johan@brepols.com

(ZNDA: London) Mathematics was an intrinsic component of many ancient cultures. Mathematical techniques ranged from the practical skills of Egyptian time-keeping to the very abstract methods of Greek geometry. Evidence of these activities can be found not only in ancient text but also in other objects that have survived from these cultures.
On September 20 and 21, 1997, discussions and seminars will be organized by University of Oxford Department for Continuing Education in association with the British Society for the History of Mathematics on "Mathematics in the Ancient World."  During these discussions and museum visits texts and artifacts will be presented to explain how they can shed light on
mathematical activity in various civilizations including ancient Egypt,
Mesopotamia, India, and the Classical world.  This weekend will be an accessible, lively and exciting opportunity to explore this topic with experts in their field.  Below is a concise outline of the presentations:
David Brown: Babylonian astronomy and mathematical methods
Serafina Cuomo: Roman land surveyors
J V Field: Sundials and conic sections
David Fowler: Greek schoolbooks
George Gheverghese Joseph: Indian architecture
Reviel Netz: Greek mathematical diagrams
Eleanor Robson: Accounting in the 21st century BC
Corinna Rossi: The mathematics of ancient Egyptian architecture
Sarah Symons: Astronomy and time-keeping in ancient Egypt
Visits to the Ashmolean Museum and the Museum of the History of Science,
Residential:    Single:                                         #93.50
                Shared:                                         #84.25
Non-residential with meals, exluding breakfast:                 #65.25
Non-residential without meals, but including conference dinner: #52.00
Non-residential without meals:                                  #37.00
The conference runs from 9:30 am on Saturday 20 September through 5:00 pm on
Sunday 21 September.
For more information and a registration form, please write to:
Course Assistant for Mathematical Studies
1 Wellington Square
United Kingdom
Telephone: 01865 270380  or email Dr Raymond Flood at:
or Dr Eleanor Robson at

Also see:  http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/bshm/meetings.html


(ZNSM: Pennsylvania) Our Lady of Lebanon Maronite Catholic Church in Easton, Pennsylvania announces the celebration of the 20th Annual Lebanese Heritage Days (Mahrajan) on Saturday, August 2nd from 6:00 pm until midnight and Sunday, August 3rd from Noon until 11 pm on the church grounds at 54 South Fourth Street. The purpose of this event is to raise funds for the church.
The festival will be held rain or shine. Entertainment includes ethnic dancing by the Church's own Lebanese dancing troupes, Emad Daoud and Ensemble with special guest Nadia Addoul. There will also be games and special activities for children. A grand raffle with total cash prize's of $2,500.00 will be drawn during the event.  Our Lady of Lebanon Maronite Catholic Church in Easton is the only Maronite church in the United States
whose parishioners are descendants of the same village of Kfarsghab in northern Lebanon near Ehden. A sister parish of "Our Lady" in Easton is located in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.

                    Z   I   G   G   U   R    A  T


Eine weitere syrisch-orthodoxe Dioezese in Mitteleuropa ist vor kurzem
in Deutschland gegruendet worden. Als Dioezesanbischof wurde der
ehemalige Patriarchalassistent Mor Dionysius Isa Guerbuez vom
Patriarchen ernannt und am Sonntag, dem 18. Mai 1997, feierlich in der
Mor Aho-Kirche in Paderborn in Anwesenheit von Tausenden
Syrisch-Orthodoxen und von Vertretern der orthodoxen, katholischen und
evangelischen Kirche Deutschlands sowie der Stadt Paderborn in sein Amt eingefuehrt.

Die Zahl der Syrisch-Orthodoxen hat in Europa und vor allem in
Deutschland in den vergangenen Jahren zugenommen. Diese Entwicklung
stellte die Leitung der aus sechs europaeischen Staaten bestehenden
Dioezese vor bedeutende Aufgaben. Darum bat der Erzbischof von
Mitteleuropa, Mor Julius Yeshu Cicek, auf Wunsch der meisten
Gemeindepfarrer in Deutschland in einem Schreiben an das Oberhaupt der
Syrisch-Orthodoxen Kirche, dem Patriarchen, Seiner Heiligkeit Mor
Ignatius Zakka I. Iwas, eine neue Dioezese fuer Deutschland
einzurichten. Im Rahmen der Heiligen Synode der Syrisch-Orthodoxen
Kirche, die unter der Schirmherrschaft des Patriarchen steht, hat dieser dem Wunsch entsprochen und die Einrichtung bestaetigt. Fuer die Leitung der neuen Dioezese, die offiziell als Patriarchalvikariat bezeichnet wird, ist der vor kurzem zum Bischof geweihte Mor Dionysius Isa Guerbuez bestimmt worden.

Der neue Dioezeanbischof Mor Dionysius reiste am 15. Mai nach
Deutschland, wo er vom Erzbischof Mor Julius Yeshu Cicek, Mor Diyoskoros Benyamen Atas, Patriarchalvikar von Schweden, und von einigen Pfarrern und Gemeindemitgliedern am Frankfurter Flughafen herzlich empfangen wurde. Nach dem Besuch der syrischen Gemeinde in Wiesbaden wurde er am 17. Mai in Begleitung der erwaehnten Wuerdentraeger in der Mor Aho-Kirche in Paderborn von syrischen Pfarrern, ihren Gemeinderaeten und vielen Syrern sowie den Buergermeistern der Staedte Paderborn und Warburg und den Vertretern der koptischen, katholischen und evangelischen Kirche Deutschlands begruesst.

In seiner Empfangsansprache dankte Mor Dionysius Isa Guerbuez dem
Patriarchen, dem Erzbischof Mor Julius Y. Cicek, und dem gesamten Klerus in Deutschland, die sich um die Gruendung dieser neuen Dioezese fuer Deutschland bemueht und ihn als ihren Leiter vorgeschlagen haben. „Fuer diese Dioezese", so der Bischof, „sind wir alle verantwortlich, dafuer, gemeinsam ihre Aufgaben zu erfuellen und der syrischen Kirche von ganzem Herzen zu dienen. Ihr habt die Aufgabe, die Stimme Eures Hirten zu hoeren, und Euer Hirte, Eure Wuensche ernstzunehmen." Dabei gab er mit nachdruecklichen Worten das Versprechen, ein theologisches Seminar zu gruenden, in dem kuenftig Priester sowie Religions- und Sprachlehrer zeitgemaess ausgebildet werden koennen. Denn das theologische Seminar baue die Kirche auf, schenke ihr das Leben und lasse sie bluehen. Mor Dionysius bedankte sich ebenfalls bei dem Buergermeister und den deutschen Kirchen, die den Syrern gegenueber freundlich und hilfsbereit seien.

Der Buergermeister Wilhelm Luecke, der seit dem Besuch des Patriarchen
1992 bei den Syrern grosses Ansehen wegen seines Engagements fuer ihre
Belange geniesst, begruesste in seiner Rede den neuen Bischof, auch im
Namen des Hochstiftsrates und aller Buerger der Stadt Paderborn. Er
sagte: „Wir freuen uns sehr darueber, dass die Weitergabe des
Bischofsamtes der neuen syrisch-orthodoxen Dioezese fuer Deutschland in unserer Stadt Paderborn stattfinden wird. Wir stehen Ihnen und den
syrischen Buergern gern bei der Erfuellung Ihrer Wuensche zur
Verfuegung." Er bedankte sich bei dem Erzbischof Julius Y. Cicek fuer
seine bisherige Arbeit in Paderborn und in ganz Deutschland und lud den Bischof Dionysius I. Guerbuez zu einem offiziellen Treffen in der Stadt Paderborn ein. Ausserdem begruessten der Dekan der katholischen Dioezese von Paderborn und der Pfarrer Strumpf vom Arbeitskreis der Christlichen Kirchen (ACK) den Bischof Dionysius. Sie erwaehnten auch, dass die katholische Dioezese und die ACK gute Kontakte zu den Syrern in Paderborn pflegen, und bedankten sich fuer die gute Zusammenarbeit.

Sonntag, der 18. Mai 1997, war ein historischer Tag und wird als solcher seinen Platz in der syrischen Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands finden. An diesem Tag wurde die neue syrisch-orthodoxe Dioezese fuer Deutschland offiziell gegruendet und ihr neuer Bischof  feierlich durch die Inthronisationszeremonie  in sein Amt eingefuehrt. In der Mor Aho-Kirche Paderborns, die 1992 von dem Patriarchen eingeweiht wurde, versammelten sich die Syrer wieder aus vielen Staedten Deutschlands und benachbarten europaeischen Laendern, um der historischen Inthronisation in der neuen Dioezese, beizuwohnen. Darunter waren ebenfalls Vertreter der Paderborner Kirchen und der Stadt Paderborn. Die Inthronisation des neuen Dioezesanbischofs Mor Dionysius Isa Guerbuez fand waehrend der Feier des goettlichen Qurobo (der Eucharistie) unter der Leitung des bisherigen Erzbischofs Mor Julius Y. Cicek statt. Sie ist wesentlicher Teil der Bischofsordination, die feierlich bei der Amtsuebernahme eines
neuen Bischofs vollzogen wird. Mor Dionysius trug auf dem Thron sitzend die Lesung ueber den „guten Hirten" aus dem Heiligen Evangelium vor, waehrend er von den Dioezesanpriestern getragen wurde. Danach erhoben sie ihn drei Mal singend mit den Worten: „Oksius, wuerdig ist Mor Dionysius [auf dem Thron der Dioezese Deutschlands]", waehrend oben die Diakone mitsangen und die liturgischen Faecher ueber ihm bewegten und unten die Gemeinde klatschte und jubelte. Danach wurde das auf die Gruendung der neuen Dioezese und den neuen Bischof bezogene Systatikon (Pontifikalbrief) des Patriarchen von Antiochien vom Bischof Mor Diyoskoros Benyamen feierlich vorgetragen. Darin wandte sich der Patriarch an alle Dioezesanmitglieder in Deutschland mit den Worten: „Nachdem unser Herr die Amtsbefugnis [ueber seine Kirche] dem Apostelfuersten Petrus und Uns, den Patriarchen von Antiochien, uebergeben hatte, haben Wir gemaess dem Beschluss der Heiligen Synode von Antiochien beschlossen, dass eine Dioezese fuer Deutschland gegruendet und Mor Dionysius Isa Guerbuez als „Patriarchalvikar" zustaendiger Bischof wird. Darum geben wir ihm den Thron und die Leitung der neuen Dioezese in Deutschland. Wir bitten Sie, ihn mit Freude zu empfangen und ihm zu gehorchen. Er ist also der Vermittler zwischen Uns und Ihnen." Der Patriarch stellte den neuen Bischof offiziell in seinem Schreiben vor, in dem er ihn mit Personalien, Ausbildung und der bisherigen Arbeit bekannt machte.

Anschliessend sprach der Erzbischof Mor Julius Y. Cicek: „Aufgrund des
Versprechens unseres Herrn Seiner Kirche gegenueber, immer bei ihr zu
sein, uebergebe ich Dir mit Erlaubnis unseres Patriarchen und der
Heiligen Synode die Dioezese von Deutschland mit ihren Priestern,
Diakonen, Gemeinderaeten und den Kirchengebaeuden. Bitte leite sie mit
Deinem ganzen Herzen!" Mor Julius ueberreichte dem Mor Dionysius Isa
Guerbuez das bischoefliche Handkreuz und den liturgischen Hirtenstab und versprach weitere Zusammenarbeit der beiden Dioezesen. Mor Dionysius, der seine Predigt mit dem Bibelspruch aus Joh 10.11, von dem guten Hirten, der sein Leben fuer seine Schafe gibt, einleitete, bedankte sich fuer das ihm entgegengebrachte Vertrauen und versprach, seiner ihm uebergebenen Dioezese von ganzem Herzen zu dienen. Er lud seine Priester und alle Jugendlichen zur Zusammenarbeit ein und wies nochmals auf die Einrichtung eines theologischen Seminars hin. Der katholische Weihbischof der Dioezese Paderborn war sehr erfreut ueber die Einrichtung der syrischen Dioezese in Deutschland und betonte, dass die syrische Kirche, deren Wurzeln auf die Apostel zurueckgehen, von grosser Bedeutung sei. Er erwaehnte das von den Kirchenoberhaeuptern von Antiochien und Rom unterzeichnete Kommuniqué zur pastoralen Zusammenarbeit, das eine Annaeherung beider Kirchen ermoeglicht hat. Anschliessend ueberreichte er dem neuen Dioezeanbischof Mor Dionysius ein Geschenk des Papstes. Fuer die Evangelische Kirche ergriff der Bielefelder Superintendent das Wort.

An dem selben Tag traf Mor Dionysius mit den meisten dort versammelten
syrischen Pfarrern aus Deutschland und deren Kirchenraeten zusammen und plante seine erste pastorale Visite. Mor Dionysius besuchte am
darauffolgenden Tag das Zentrum der syrisch-orthodoxen Erzdioezese von
Mitteleuropa in Holland, wo er von Mor Julius Y. Cicek und den syrischen Gemeinden Hollands im Mor Ephrem-Kloster mit choralischen Ehren herzlich empfangen wurde. Mor Julius wiederholte auch dort das Angebot seiner Zusammenarbeit auf allen Dioezesanebenen und ehrte den Bischof. Mor Julius Yeshu hat seit der Gruendung der Erzdioezese von Mitteleuropa vor 20 Jahren viel Energie und Muehe aufgewendet fuer deren Betreuung und in der Folgezeit die meisten syrischen Gemeinden in Deutschland gegruendet, eine grosse Zahl der Priester und Diakone geweiht und alle Kirchengebaeude errichten lassen. Die syrischen Gemeinden Deutschlands moechten ihm ihren Dank aussprechen und ehren ihn fuer seine bisherige Arbeit. Der neue Bischof Mor Dionysius moege als wuerdiger Nachfolger seiner Aufgabe als Guter Hirte gerecht werden.

Mor Dionyisus Isa Guerbuez wurde 1964 in Kfarze, im Tur’Abdin, geboren. Seine theologische Ausbildung absolvierte er im Priesterseminar des Klosters Mor Gabriel, waehrend er zugleich das tuerkische Lyzeum in Midyat besuchte. Dort trat er in den Moenchsorden ein und erhielt spaeter die Priesterweihe durch den Erzbischof von Tur’Abdin, Mor Timotheus Samuel Aktas. Ende der 80er Jahre wurde er nach Damaskus geschickt und lehrte am Theologischen Patriarchalseminar Mor Ephrem vor allem Syrisch und die liturgischen Faecher. Als Moench betreute er eine Weile auch die syrischen Gemeinden in AEgypten.  Spaeter ernannte ihn der Patriarch Mor Ignatius Zakka Iwas zum Spiritual und Direktor des Seminars, bis er im September 1996 zum Bischof geweiht und damit Sekretaer des Patriarchen wurde. Zum Zweck des Studiums der englischen Sprache hielt er sich fuer ein Jahr in den USA auf. Neben dem Syrischen spricht er Tuerkisch, Kurdisch, Arabisch und nicht zuletzt Englisch.

Gabriel Rabo
Goettingen, Deutschland (Germany)

       C   A   L   E   N   D   A   R     OF     E   V   E   N   T   S
Aug 4 & 11        "The Massacre at Semel"
            A ZENDA-TV Production
            Hosted by Wilfred Alkhas
            Produced by ZENDA & Grafeex Productions
            Director/Producer:  Annette Joma
            9:30 pm on TCI Channel 15A

Aug 28-30          Assyrian National Convention, Detroit-Michigan
               Schedule of Cultural Events

Thursday, August 28
    1:00-2:30 pm    Assyrian Dance Workshop
    2:30-3:30 pm    Video: The Sumerian Kingdom of Ur
    3:30-4:15 pm    Lecture: Science & Medicine in Ancient Assyria
    4:30-5:15 pm    Lecture: Assyrian Sci & Med during the Arab Period

Friday, August 29
    1:00-2:30 pm    Assyrian Dance Workshop
    2:30-3:30 pm    Video:  Babylon: the Gate of the Gods
    3:30-4:15 pm  Lecture: Art in Ancient Assyria
    4:30-5:15 pm    Lecture: Assyrians in the Computer Age

Saturday, August 30
    1:00-2:30 pm    Assyrian Painting Workshop
    2:30-3:30 pm    Video: Ashurnasirpal, The Assyrian King
    3:30-4:15 pm    Lecture: History of the Church of the East
    4:30-5:15 pm     Lecture: History of the Assyrian National Tragedies

For more information contact Atour Golani, 1997 Convention Chairman, at
(313) 274-4545.

Through    In the Presence of the Gods: Art from Ancient Sumer
Mar 8,1998    The Smart Museum of Art
        5550 South Greenwood Avenue
        Free Admission
                          E  N  T  R  A  C  T  E
Aug 26-Sep 2    Assyrian American National Convention
        Hyatt Regency Dearborn
        Fairlane Town Center
        Detroit, Michigan
        All Single,double,triple,quad rooms: $95 per day
        Reservations: (313) 982-6880
        Reservations must be made by August 7
                         I N T E L L I G E N T S I A
CHICAGO    Eastern Church History Class
        "A New Exposure to the History of Eastern Christianity
        Instructor:  AbdulMasih Saadi
        North Park College
        Carlson Tower, Room C43
        3225 West Foster Avenue
        Chicago, Illinois
        June 25-Aug 13
        7:00-9:00 pm; weekly (9 weeks)
        Registration Fee:  $ 80:00 (tax-deductible)
        Tuition reduced based on financial need.
        1-800-454-8979 or email history@aas.net
        Sponsored by the Assyrian Academic Society of Chicago
        Assyrian Athletic Club Soccer Development Program
        Ages 7-14
        7:45-9:45 pm
        Warren Park Gymnasium
        Western Avenue & Devon Street
HARVARD     1997-98 Syriac Classes Taught by Dr. J.F. Coakley
        Elementary Syriac
        Instructor:  J. F. Coakley
        Basic Syriac grammar and syntax with selected readings from
        the Syriac Bible and other early texts.
        Readings in Syriac I
        Historical and theological texts, and early poetry
        Readings in Syriac II
        Special attention to exegetical texts and to reading         manuscripts.
NORTH          Assyrian Boy Scouts
HOLLYWOOD     Assyrian American Association of Southern California
              Assyrian Club
              5901 Cahuenga Blvd
               North Hollywood, California
              9:30am  to 12:30pm
               Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
              (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm
           Assyrian Student Union
          California State University, Northridge
            Assyrian American Association of Southern California
          Assyrian Club
           5901 Cahuenga Blvd
              North Hollywood, California
              Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
            (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm
SAN JOSE    Nisibin School
        Assyrian Language Classes
        Ages 5-14
        10:00-1:00 pm
        AAA of San Jose BETA
        20000 Almaden Road
        Assyrian Language Classes (Adults)
        Taught by Dr. Ashur Moradkhan
        7:00-9:00 pm
        AAA of San Jose BETA
        Citizenship Classes
        Mondays & Tuesdays
        7:00 pm
        AAA of San Jose BETA
        20000 Almaden Road
        Maestro Nebu Issabey's Nineveh Choir Practice
        AAA of San Jose BETA
        8:00 pm
TORONTO    Nisibis School
             The Church of the East
              Toronto, Canada

      A  S  S  Y  R  I  A  N     S  U  R  F  I  N  G     P  O  S  T  S

THE AGE OF EMPIRES is a new game by Microsoft:
"Assyrian long bowmen wait atop the hill, the broad swordsmen huddled close for protection. Down below, near the river of C'ssalus rests the fortified city of Ghorah Khar; the Minoan armies inside restless and anxious to destroy the intruders. The charge is called, the city gates open, spilling the Minoan army onto the countryside. The Assyrians wait as the Minoans approach, firing an occasional arrow down the slope to impede their progress."  For a preview:


                    P  U  M  P    UP THE   V O L U M E

        English        Modern Assyrian

        Disaster         qin/ta            [F]
            Fortune        tdaw/gad/doo/ta    [F]
            F = Feminine     M = Masculine      P = Plural
                B  A  C  K     TO THE      F  U  T  U  R  E
B.C. (1782)  Shamshi-Adad of Assyria and Hammurabi of Babylon swear an Oath of Peace between the two Mesopotamian kingdoms.

<< Babylonians, Saggs>>

A.D. (1318-1360) Patriarch Timothy II notes the following Seven Sacraments of the Assyrian Church (of the East): 1)Holy Orders 2)The Consecration of a Church and Altar 3)Baptism and Holy Oil (confirmation) 4)The Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood  5) The Blessing of Monks 6)The Office for the Dead and 7)Marriage

<< The Nestorian Churches, Vine >>

                 L    I    T    E    R    A    T    U    S


Marduk-Zakhir-Shumi reigned over Babylonia during the third quarter of the
9th century BC. Not long after Marduk-Zakhir-Shumi ascended the throne, his younger brother Marduk-Bel-ushati led a rebellion against him. Unable to crush the rebellion by himself, he turned to the king of Assyria, Shalmanesar III, for aid.  Shalmanesar led his forces to the south and after two campaigns (in 851 and 850 BC) put down the revolt. Following upon the final defeat of the rebel forces at Arman (Halman), Shalmaneser vistied Cutha, Babylon and Borsippa, gave gifts to the gods of these three important cult centres, and feted the citizens of Babylon and Borsippa, who he described as "the people who are entitled by the great gods to protection and freedom from seizure."

<<Royal Inscription of Mesopotamia Project, G.Frame and A. Kirk Grayson>>

          T  H  I  S    W  E  E  K     I  N    H  I  S  T  O  R  Y
July 29, 1918:  The Great Exodus of 1918 begins from Urmie towards the city of Hamadan in Iran.  Between 1915 and 1919 nearly two thirds of the Assyrian population in Iran perished while fleeing the atrocities of the Turkish and Kurdish armies.

                        B     R    A     V     O


(ZNSH: Los Angeles)  Las May, Madlen Zango, president of the Assyrian American Association of Southern California, was among the many representatives of the ethnic communities in California who traveled to Sacramento and spoke against the impending withdrawal of welfare benefits for elderly immigrants.  Ms. Zango voiced her objections against government plans to cut benefits to the elderly in California who are unable to become U.S. citizens. In representing her Assyrian community of southern California she was able to bring recognition to the growing Assyrian constituency of the Golden State, an obligation often ignored by the Assyrian community leaders in Califoria.

                        the   D I  R  E  C  T  O  R  Y
ZNAA (Assyrian Academic Society-Chicago)
ZNAD (Assyrian Democratic Organization)
ZNAM (Archeology Magazine)
ZNAP (Associated Press International)
ZNBN (Bet-Nahrain Inc/ KBSV-TV "AssyriaVision")
ZNDA (Zenda: zenda@ix.netcom.com)
ZNMN (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNNQ (Nabu Quarterly)
ZNNV (Nineveh Magazine)
ZNRU (Reuters)
ZNSH (Shotapouta Newsletter)
ZNSJ (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNSM (Shufimafi Lebanese News)
ZNTM (Time Magazine)
ZNUP (United Press International)
ZNUS (US News & World Report)

          W   E   L   C   O   M   E     T O     Z   E   N   D   A
Zenda welcomes our new on-line subscribers from:

            Anderson Consulting
            Applied Materials
            Arizona State University
            Santa Clara University, California
            University of Illinois, Chicago
            University of Southern California
            University of Sydney, Australia
            Bakersfield, California
            Dallas, Texas
            Fairfield, Australia
            Hertfordshire, England
            Longview, Washington
            Manchester, Georgia
            Pinole, California
            San Jose, California
            Sydney, Australia
            Washington, D.C.

                     S     A     L     U     T     E
Zenda wishes to thank the following individuals whose contributions appear in this week's issue:

Firas Jatou        Chicago, Illinois        Good Morning Bet-Nahrain
                            Surfers Corner
                            News Digest
                            Assyrian Surfing Posts
Raman Mikhael        Chicago, Illinois        Good Morning Bet-Nahrain
Wisam Kosa        San Diego, California    News Digest
and the following individual(s) for introducing ZENDA to our new readers:

Francis Sarguis    Santa Barbara, California
Lena Mushell        San Jose, California
Ramin Daniels        San Jose, California
Yolanda Bebla        San Jose, California



Part I:  August 4    9:30 pm     Channel 15A    TCI Cablevision
Part II: August 11    9:30 pm    Channel 15A    TCI Cablevision

In Our Upcoming Issues:
    Aug 4:        Assyrian Martyrs Day
    Sep 8:        Assyrian National Convention Report
    Sep 15:    Issa Benyamin:  Letters in Motion

Would you like to know more about a particular topic on Assyrian culture, arts, history, langauge, politics, etc.  Drop us a note!

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