Z    E    N    D    A

A Weekly Assyrian Online Magazine

Vol III, Issue 36 & 37

II Tishreen 17, 6747                   November 17, 1997

T H I S   W E E K   I N   Z E N D A

The Lighthouse.......................................... Brothers in Arms
Good Morning Bet-Nahrain....................  Syria Releases Assyrians Held in Damascus
                                                                        The Lates Development in Northern Iraq
                                                                        Turkey:  Incirlik Will Not Be Used in the Conflict
                                                                       UN Security Council Adopts Resolution 1137
                                                                        Middle East Christian Committee Issues Press Release on "Arab Ignorance"
Surfs Up.....................................................   "I Love HTML."
Surfers Corner............................................ An Assyrian American National Federation Press Release
                                                                        Meeting of the Assyrian Federations
News Digest...............................................  Walid Phares Lectures on Syriac Roots of Lebanese Christians
                                                                        Aramaic Dictionary to Appear in 2003
Calendar of Events.................................... MESA Conference in San Francisco
Khudra......................................................... November 1997 - January 1998
Entracte........................................................No New Entries            
Intelligentsia.................................................Meetings & Classes
Abzu.............................................................Assyrian Radio & TV Programs
Assyrian Surfing Posts..............................A Timeline of Ancient Mesopotamian History
Pump up the Volume................................ Traveler & Inspector
Back to the Future..................................... Neo-Sumerian Period  
Literatus....................................................... At Last...  
This Week in History............................... American Mission Press in Urmie
Bravo........................................................... Assyrian Cyber Library
Shekels & Minas....................................... No New Entries
Bshena......................................................... Australia, 3Com, & VLSI
Salute............................................................ Carlo, Ellie, Firas, Rachelle, Tony & William
The Directory.............................................ZENDA News Sources

the  L I G H T H O U S E


The hour was early; the morning fresh and cool.  A refreshing breeze was quietly moving the small puffs of fleecy clouds.  Willows, purple teasel, buttercups, and scarlet anemones along the banks of the river Tigris were awaiting th grand entrance of the burning sun of Bet-Nahrain.  Soon the warmth of the sun would draw out the smell of wild flowers that grow in this most scorching fire-pit of Middle East.  Here one is sensible of the odor of everything- the dirt, the flowers, the grass, and the decaying bodies of men.  Along the emerald hills rolling along the silently streaming water of Tigris, as afar as eyes could see, lied the corpses of Iraqi, Turkish, Kurdish and Assyrian soldiers.  They no longer perceived the gentleness and sympathy in the touch of the cool morning air that begot th life, the color, the pleasing smells, and the green shades of the palm trees. They had left the amenities of life in search of uncertainties beyond.

The full-scale, unexpected attack of the Republican Army was over.  This time there was no coalition of world's mighty armies to defend the Sheiks of Arabia.  Clinton was unable to amass the alliance his predecessor's Commanders had brought together in 1991.  The Kurdish-Turkish troops had held up Saddam Hussein's soldiers under the most trying circumstances.  For eight straight days they had continued to fight until all their bodies and fortifications in northern Iraq were shot into pieces.  All were dead but one; Ashur was still in pain.  He was still able to hear the cheering Iraqi soldiers crossing the river and could see the faces of his friends, emotionless and bloody.  Tears were dropping on his ragged Kurdish uniform, adorned with the Zowaa emblem and soiled with the grime of war, injustice, and death.

Knowing that if he stuck his head above the parapet it would be clearly outlined against the sky, he chose to wait a little longer in the trench.  He began to quietly move away from underneath the bodies of his friends and reach for his gun.  He knew he was bleeding, though he had no idea from whence the blood flowed.  While reaching for his M-16 a gout of blood sputted from his left biceps.  The pain was agonizing.

His right arm was unrecognizably mutilated.  He held the gun in his left hand and slowly began to climb the ladder to have a better look.  He saw the back of the singing soldier who was facing the same direction, singing in Arabic to the birds flying over the river.  Ashur was now confident that the Iraqis had left only one soldier at that post.  An Iranian battalion, "Karbala 12", was also on its way to join the Turkish-Kurdish armies in the north.  "Karbala 8" had already arrived in southern Iraq and captured Basra and the Shiites strong-holds of southern Bet-Nahrain.  "Karbala 12" was to reach the river shores at night, not anticipating any enemy attack.  Ashur knew that it was up to him to silence the soldier so that he would not be able to inform the Republicans.

The nerve-racking wait commenced.  Ashur could not take his eyes off the faces of his Kurdish and Assyrian friends.  None of them were recognizable, their heads smashed like eggshells.  The scene overwhelmed him and as he pitched forward on his side a convulsive shudder ran through his body.  The Iraqi solder was now shooting at the birds above his head.  "If I could be rescued this one time I will go straight to Dohuk and take my brothers with me to America," thought Ashur.  He then remembered Tiglath, his first cousin, whom he was to visit in Arbil.

Tiglath, a Chaldean-Assyrian, was born and raised in Baghdad and like Ashur was anxious to leave his parents behind and begin a new life in America.  Ashur had not heard from him in months and was wondering if he had reached Arbil by now.  Since the two cousins had never met each other, Tiglath had send a message to Ashur's parents in Dohuk that his cousin should look for him wearing a golden medallion with the image of the god Ashur etched in a red circle.  Tiglath's father had made this medallion for his son's Sixteenth birthday.

Ashur was in too much pain to pay attention to his growling stomach.  His lips were dry.  He was now thinking of men facing death-- men like himself.  Could he live until the coming of the battalion?  He had to face the truth like a real soldier.  He was dying, facing the reality of war, the swift moral collapse and unexpected death that mock the quest of every "oumthanaya.".  If the Assyrian history teachers in the schools setup by Zowaa could only see him now.  How would he be remembered back home?  Maybe every August 7th someone will read another monotonous poem in in remembrance of a few thousand of other Assyrians like himself.  Maybe his name would be engraved upon a sculpture erected in a distant place where the most visibly patriotic act of its Assyrian leaders is to organize an annual five-day national convention.  With these thoughts he began to laugh at himself, at whatever he was taught in school, in prayer groups, about life, the nature of humankind, and his fate.

A moment later the sound of an approaching tank was heard in the distance.  He had to do away with the Iraqi soldier now.  He tried to raise himself but could hardly move.  The shouts of Kurdish "Peeshmargs" could be heard from the distance.  It was the renewed Kurdish and possibly Turkish enforcement he had prayed for.  Perhaps even his Assyrian friends from the North had come along to drive the Iraqis back behind the 32nd Parallel.  The Iraqi soldier had to be silenced.  The silhouette of the Iraqi soldier standing at the edge of the trench was clearly visible.  Ashur quietly aimed at the soldier's head and with his eyes closed fired at him.  The soldier fell dead into the trench.

Today Ashur lives in the United States.  He possesses nothing for himself but the gruesome memories of the war of '98, a paralyzed body, and something that once belonged to the Iraqi soldier he shot at the edge of the trench - a gold medallion with the image of the Assyrian god Ashur.

Wilfred Alkhas
San Jose, California

G O O D  M O R N I N G  Bet-Nahrain
(ZNDA:  Germany)  ZENDA's European Desk in Germany reported yesterday that at 9:00 am Damascus Time, the three Assyrians held for questioning by the Syrian Government were released to join their families in the Khabour region.  Bashir Saadi, Yonan Talya, and Aziz Ahe were arrested on 24 June by the Syrian authorities and were kept under detention without access to an attorney.  All three men were arrested for launching a water supply project to improve the conditions of the Assyrian villages in Syria. Various Assyrian and non-Assyrian organizations from Europe expressed concern and appealed to the Syrian President Hafiz Al-Assad.  According to a reliable source, Mor Ignatius Zakka I, Patriarch of the Syrian Orthodox Church, was instrumental in the release of the Assyrian prisoners.

(ZNIN: Arbil)  The Iraqi National Congress reports the following developments in northern Iraq:  160 Turkish tanks have crossed the Zab river towards Akra and Qasrok.  On Tuesday, 24 Turkish tanks returned to Salahuddin and Shaqlawa. Turkish aircraft continued reconnaissance flights and Turkish artillery is still deployed.  The KDP took Harir without fighting. The PUK pulled out of the Qalow Qassim heights without fighting.  The Akoban Harir road is full of burned out PUK vehicles from the 11 August battles.  On Safeen Mountain there are many dead- at least 70 bodies remain.  The dead bodies of both sides are being delivered to relatives. The mood in Kurdistan is very bad-- there are an estimated 1000 dead and 2300 wounded from the latest fighting. Doctors are operating nonstop in Arbil, Dohuk, and Sulaymania.  The road from Arbil to Sulaymania is still cut and Arbil has no electricity.


(ZNDA:  Ankara)  According to an article in the Turkish newspaper Jumhuiyet, Ankara has finally made it clear that Incirlik airbase near Adana will  not  be  made available to US forces in the event that US forces are deployed against Iraq.  Officials in  the  Foreign  Ministry  said that  should  there  be a conflict between Iraq and the US, then Turkey would be one of the countries likely  to  lose  the  most, especially  if  Incirlik  base  was used by US forces.  In view of the circumstances, officials added that there was no chance that the  base would   be   made   operative  in  another  gulf-style  confrontation.  Meanwhile, last Wednesday Washington moved additional warplanes into Turkey's Incirlik air base.  The new planes are part of the Incirlik-based "Northern Watch" force enforcing the allied no-fly zone over northern Iraq since the Gulf War.  A western
source said the planes included four KC-135 airborne refueling tankers and four F-16 jet fighters that arrived earlier.  The Turkish foreign ministry source confirmed the new US planes were aimed at policing the no-fly zone, saying they had "nothing to do with the current crisis between Iraq and the United States concerning UN inspections."  Operation "Northern Watch" replaced operation "Provide Comfort" at the end of last year as the allied effort to aim and protect Kurds in northern Iraq. "Northern Watch" planes fly daily patrols in the no-fly zone imposed on Iraqi aircraft north of the 36th parallel since the Gulf War.


(ZNAF:  New York)  On Wednesday, the UN Security Council adopted  by unanimous vote a resolution strengthening sanctions on Iraq. All 15 members of the council voted in favor of the measure, which provides for a travel ban on Iraqi officials who block UN inspections and other punitive steps.   Iraq rejected the new UN sanctions and vowed it would not be forced
to back down in its two-week stand-off with UN weapons inspectors.  Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz, who was in New York when  the UN Security Council passed resolution 1137 boosting sanctions against Baghdad, said "Iraq condemns and rejects the Security Council resolution."

Here are the key provisions of the resolution.


(ZNMW:  New York)  In New York, the Middle East Christian Committee, a coalition of four ethnic minorities in the Middle East, Copts, Southern Sudanese, Lebanese Christians, and Assyrians, issued a press-release criticizing "Arab arrogance, particularly those regimes who are oppressing native nations." MECHRIC responded to President Husni Mubarak of Egypt by asking his government and other Arab governments to "return the stolen Christian lands in the Middle East." The press-release said "you are building on our lands everywhere in the Middle East. And these lands Mr. President should and will return to their original owners."  President Hosni Mubarak decided last week that Egypt would not take part in this week's regional economic conference in Qatar in protest at what he called Israel's failure to keep its promises. Cairo has now lined up behind Saudi Arabia, Syria and Lebanon in boycotting the conference.   The United Arab Emirates, Oman and the Arab League have also
said they will only come if there is substantial movement to break the Middle East deadlock. Iraq, Libya and Sudan, all bitterly opposed to U.S.-brokered peace deals with Israel, were not invited in the first place.

S U R F's  U P!

 "I don't think I've seen anyone better describe the state of our clubs and associations than William Daniel.  Thank you, Zenda, for sharing this exceptionally poignant excerpt."

Arbella Issabey
San Jose, California

[See last issue's LITERATUS]


Helbard Alkhas
Capitola, California

S U R F E R S   C O R N E R

It is the prime directive of the Assyrian American National Federation to preserve the Assyrian heritage and to implement efforts towards insuring the inalienable human rights are not denied to Assyrians living anywhere in the world.

Although the concerns of the Federation are global in nature there is a region of the world where emphasis must be placed -- the Middle East.  The AANF stresses the importance of the acknowledgment by the governments of that area of th world that the Assyrians are an ethnic groups who are entitled to universal human rights.   Rights, which will enable this group of people to speack/preserve/teach their language and culture without fear.  Also, the right to religious freedom must be included as well,  Assyrians have contributed and continue to contribute endlessly to the cultural, educational, and social atmosphere of the region.  Throughout history the Assyrians have pivoted the development of the Middle East for the better, resulting in the admirable attributes idiosyncratic to that party of the world, which are, unfortunately not in the foreground at present.  Countries such as Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Turkey (as well as other Middle Eastern states where Assyrians reside), must officially recognize the Assyrian people as an ethnic group as well as a Christian minority, if not for all the invaluable contributions made by these people, then for the mere fact they are human beings who want to live in peace and preserve their unique culture without fear of reprisal.

The State of Iraq in particular must recognize Assyrians as ethnic minority because they ar the indigenous people of the area comprising that country.  Acknowledgment of ethnic identity, in the Iraqi constitution, that is bestowed to the Kurds and Arabs must be bequeathed to the Assyrians as well.

The current sanctions imposed on Iraq must be lifted.  The innocent citizens (Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Chrisians, Muslims) are suffering a fate no sentient being should experience.  The international governmental powers must find a way to deal with the current situation of that area without harming innocent civilians (which include young children).

It is imperative the Middle Eastern countries strive for peace.  This region, comprising the "cradle of civilization", must set an example for the rest of the world.

Sargon Lewie
President of the AANF
Chicago, Illinois

On September 30, 1997 the federations from around the world, who were extended invitations to the 64th Annual Assyrian American National Federation Convention, gathered for a meeting at the Hyatt Regency, Dearborn, Michigan.  Attendees included: The Chaldean Federation of America, The Assyrian Sweden Federation, Tur Abdin Federation of Holland, World Lebanese Ogranization (Maronite), The Assyrian Australian Federation, The National Congress of Georgia, The Assyian Federation of Russia (LAROS), and The Assyrian National Council of Iran.  It is hoped the Assyrian/ Chaldean/ Maronite/ Jacobite federations/organizations from Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and other parts of the Middle East and Europe will be able to be part of future cultural programs and endeavors resulting from all of our combined efforts.

The following was agreed upon...

Efforts must be made to increase activity and awareness within the Assyrian community on  a worldwide basis.  Community activity should not be restricted to the few individuals who dedicate their time to the clubs/ organizations/ institutions.  The lay Assyrian individual must become active or in touch with the community s/he resides in.  As a result this individual will be in tune with Assyrians all over the world since one of the aspects of our culture is a close-knit society.

Increasing and enhancing the cultural, athletic, academic, artistic programs etc., within the communities around the globe will heighten the participation of the "everyday" lay Assyrian.

Communication between the Assyrian Federations must be maintained in order to establish familiarity and a sense of cohesion.  One way of implementing this will be to compose the existing (Federation) publications (such as the AANF's Assyrian Star) through international efforts.  Individuals working on Assyrian publications from around the world can contact and exchange information, thus, contributing to each others newspaper, magazine, newsletter etc.  This will, in turn, tighten the relations and sense of brotherhood between Assyrian communities in different countries.

Relations and contact between the worldwide Assyrian communities via the Federation will be handled by the presidents themselves until such time official rules/procedures and contact individuals are set and assigned.

During the meeting, it must be noted, the designated representatives and presidents of the federations in attendance exhibited promising and positive initiative and input.  Each individual showed enthusiasm for fellow attendees to do the honor of running the meeting.

Unity is inevitable and we shall strive to attain it.

Sargon Lewie
President of the AANF
Chicago, Illinois

N E W S   D I G E S T

(ZNDA:  Stockholm)  According to the Lebanon Bulletin news form Sweden, at the invitation of the Cultural and Academic Committee of the Federation of Syriac Clubs of Sweden, Professor Walid Phares recently presented a lecture on "the Syriac roots of the Lebanese Christians." Dr Phares, whose article appeared in the last issue of ZENDA, is a native of Lebanon and formerly a lawyer in Beirut, teaches political science in Florida , the author of number ofbooks and articles on ethnic conflict, nationalism, as well as Middle East politics and Lebanese affairs. Phares is also the publisher of Mideast News wire.

The lecture was held in Stockholm on Sunday July 27, 1997. Among the audience were leaders of various associations including representatives from the Syriac Clubs, as well as Assyrian, Chaldeans and Maronites associations. Also attending were the delegates from the Swedish Social Democratic Party, the Christian Social DemocraticParty of Lebanon (CSDP), the Lebanese Forces, theAounist current, the Amine Gemayel current, the Chamounists, members of the Jezzine and south Lebanon community, the Maronite League of Sweden, the Lebanese Front, the Swedish Coalition for the Christian People of Lebanon, and many other groups. The various Churches and community clubs were also present

After briefs introductions by Federation leaders, Dr. Phares addressed the audience with few words in Syriac, emphasizing his personal cultural experience with ethnic and linguistic identification. Phares then reviewed the ancient evolution of the Fertile Crescent culturalidentities, stressing the Syro-Mesopotamian dimensions. According to Phares "the region was predominantly inhabited by Syriacspeaking peoples and enjoyed its own identity forcenturies, perhaps millennia, before the Arab Islamic conquest."  Phares explained the eruption of a new political and cultural order in the region as a result of the Fatah, i.e., the Arab Islamic invasion of the upper Middle East. He noted that one should recognize the historic role of the Syriac-speaking
communities in supporting the  Aramaic-inspired Lebanese nationalism. For Syriacs in the diaspora and in the Middle East should be part of the Lebanese Christian resistance, a movement which is reclaiming the Syriac-rooted identity, not only for the Maronites but for all Syriac-speaking peoples in the region. "Unity among Lebanese Christians and between Syriac speaking communities is the sine qua non condition for the success of a new Lebanese nation." stressed Dr. Phares.


(ZNAP: Washington D.C.)   A small federal agency has been spending $1.3 million -including $167,000 this year - on a 20-year project to put together the biggest-ever dictionary of Jesus' first and last language:  Aramaic.  By 2003, publication should begin for the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon in five volumes. Once 2,500 years ago Aramaic spread from Pakistan to southern Egypt.  Aramaic was the language spoken by the natives of Galilee including Jesus.  It is also is the source of modern Hebrew's square alphabet, used in Israel today. Few Christians in the Western world now know Aramaic, but many recall Jesus' last words on the cross, which the Bible reports in that language: "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani"?  Mark, apparently writing in Greek, carefully added "which is, being interpreted, "My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?"  Today's Future Assyrian clergy and students of Syriac studies study Aramaic at seminaries in the Middle East and India and a number of universities around the world.

The new dictionary will largely serve scholars, since it covers the many variations in the language only up to the year 1400. It also is expected to shed light on some historical puzzles, such as why the ancient Persian empire chose Aramaic as its officiallanguage when its own language was very different - an Indo-European tongue distantly related to English.

The grants for the Aramaic dictionary come from the National Endowment for the Humanities, which also has financed dictionaries of other ancient languages in the Middle East, including Sumerian, which goes back more than 5,000 years and may be the oldest written language of all.  The dictionary is being edited by Stephen Kaufman of Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati and the Rev. Joseph Fitzmyer, a professor retired from Washington's Catholic University.

Visit:  The History of the Aramaic Language

C A L E N D A R  of  E V E N T S

Nov 22-24 Middle East Studies Association's 31st Annual Meeting
                     San Francisco, California
                     Hyatt Regency San Francisco

Dec 7                General Meeting of the Assyrian Foundation of America
                     Berkeley, California
                     Agenda: General Elections

Dec 11-13            British Association for Near Eastern Archaeology
                     1997 Annual Conference
                     University of Durham
                     United Kingdom

Dec 20               Maestro Nebu Issabey's Nineveh Choir
                     San Jose State University Music Hall
                     8:00 PM
                     Tickets:  $ 20.00
                                                     (408) 927-8100/9100  or  Visit  Etminan Bazaar & United Foods in San Jose

Through Mar 8,1998   In the Presence of the Gods: Art from Ancient Sumer
                     The Smart Museum of Art
                     5550 South Greenwood Avenue
                     Free Admission

A presentation of 43 4,500-year-old Sumerian temple offerings, including statues from Tell Asmar, tablets, carved stone vessels, and relief panels showing banquet scenes. Jul 5-10            45th International Congress of Assyriology and Near Eastern Archaeology
                                                Cambridge, Massachusetts & New Haven, Connecticut


Nov 19     Commemoration of Mar Yacoub m' Pasqa
Nov 22     Dokhrana 'd Mar Odisho d'Urmi
Dec 7      Annunciation of the Virgin Mary (Soobara)
Dec 8      Immaculate Conception
Dec 13     Mar Yacub d'Nsiven (St. James of Nisibin)
Dec 20     King Abgar V
Dec 22     Mar Yousip (St. Joseph)
Dec 25     Christmas (New Calendar)
Jan 1      Mee-yah Khateh (Epiphany)
Jan 22     Dokhrana 'd Mar Benyamin (St. Benjamin)

The Church Liturgy of the Assyrian Church of the East

E N T R A C T E!

To Promote Your Social Events include ZENDA in Your Organization's Mailing List.
ZENDA  P.O. Box 20278  San Jose, California  95160  U.S.

Dec 31        New Year's Eve Party
                  Assyrian American Association of San Jose
                  Entertainers:  Black Cats & Franco
                  Marriott Hotel
                  Santa Clara, California
                  Tickets:  $65-75       Raffle Prizes:  Cruise to Mexico, Trips to Las Vegas/Carmel/Disneyland
                  (408) 927-8100/9100


Chicago Introductory Modern Assyrian Zaia Kanoon Wednesdays & Thursdays 7:00-9:00 PM North Park University 
Carlson Tower
Assyrian Academic Society 
Advanced Modern Assyrian Yoab Benjamin Saturdays 3:00-5:00 PM North Park University 
Carlson Tower
Assyrian Academic Society 
Soccer Practice 
Ages 7-14
Mondays 7:45-9:45 PM Warren Park Gymnasium 
                               Western Avenue & Devon Street 
Assyrian Athletic Club Soccer Development Program
Harvard University Elementary & Readings in Syriac I & II Dr. J.F. Coakley
North Hollywood Assyrian Boy Scouts  Sargon Gewargis fishtale@juno.com 
(818) 891-3705 
after 7:30 PM 
Sundays 9:30 AM  to 12:30 PM 5901 Cahuenga Blvd 
                               North Hollywood, California
Assyrian American Association of Southern California 
                               Assyrian Club 
- Meeting Sargon Gewargis fishtale@juno.com 
(818) 891-3705 
after 7:30 PM 
Mondays 6:00 PM 5901 Cahuenga Blvd 
                               North Hollywood, California
Assyrian Student Union 
                               California State University, Northridge
Ontario, Canada Nisibis School Saturdays 10:30-1:30 PM Toronto, Canada
The Church of the East
12:00 PM MSA Room, Fennell Campus 
Hamilton, Canada
Assyrian Students Association
San Jose, CA English as a Second Language Jacklin Bajan Mondays 7:00-9:30 PM 20000 Almaden Rd, San Jose Assyrian American Association of San Jose
Nisibin School for Children Madlen Ivan Saturdays 10:00 AM -1:00 PM 20000 Almaden Rd, San Jose Assyrian American Association of San Jose
Computer Class Esha Tamras Sundays 2:00-4:00 PM 20000 Almaden Rd, San Jose Assyrian American Association of San Jose
Assyrian Language Wilfred Alkhas Mondays 7:30-9:00 PM 20000 Almaden Rd, San Jose Assyrian American Association of San Jose



Ontario, Canada Assyrian Voice of Canada Saturdays 3:00-4:00 PM 
10:00 PM-12:00 AM
Cable 91.7 & 91.9 Voice: 905-279-6206 
Fax:  905-279-7347


Modesto/Turlock AssyriaVision Daily 7:00 AM-2:00 AM KBSV-TV 23 Bet-Nahrain Inc. 
San Jose, California Atour TV Mondays 8:30-9:00 PM Channel 15A (TCI Cable) Assyrian American Association of San Jose
San Jose/South San Francisco Bay Area Assyrian Weekly Magazine Tuesdays (1st & 3rd  of the month) 6:00-7:00 PM Channel 15A (TCI Cable) Host: George Maragolof
San Jose/South San Francisco Bay Area Assyrian Weekly Magazine Fridays 7:00-8:00 PM Channel 15A (TCI Cable) Host:  George Maragolof
Southern California & Chicago Assyrian Church of Nineveh Check Your Local Listing Check Your Local Listing Ch. 20:  Santa Clarita 
Ch. 25:  East San Fernando Valley 
Ch. 27: West San Fernando Valley 
Ch. 36:  Chicago
Assyrian Pentecostal Church of Nineveh


A Timeline of Ancient Mesopotamian History
P U M P  U P  THE  V O L U M E
English       Modern Assyrian

                                                   Inspector          msha/la/na          [M]

                                                   Traveller          kha/zo/qa            [F]

                           F = Feminine    M = Masculine    P = Plural


 BC (2150)

After the collapse of Sargon of Akkad's dynasty, Sumer enjoyed a brief revival of political power. Gudea in 2140 began rebuilding its temples as a symbolic act of independence.  20 years later Utuhegal of Uruk drove the Gutians out of Sumer.  In 2112 Ur-Nammu founded the Third Dynasty of Ur.  His accomplishments included the great ziggurat and the oldest legal code in the world.  His son, Shulgi, ruled for 48 years.  Soon after Shulgi Sumerian authority declined and by 2000 B.C. Sumer had disappeared as a political entity.  But its glory was preserved in the literary traditions of its successors, Assyria and Babylon.

<<Sumer: Cities of Eden, Time-Life Books   >>

AD (7th Century)

The Maronites move to Mount Lebanon  and found an independent political entity called the State of Marada. Until 1305 Marada was protected from invadors when it was defeated by the Mamelukes.

<< From A Lecture by Dr. Waleed Phares Presented at the "Detroit Convention" in September 1997  >>



So the mighty brothers fought at first
pushing and shoving each other
for hours and hours enraged.
Then a calm force gently soothed
their well-matched spirits
to bring a peace and rest their strife.
It was Enkidu who sued for rest saying:
"Gilgamesh, enough! I am here to
match some fate with you, not
to destroy or rival any king."

<< The Epic of Gilgamesh, verse rendition by Danny P. Jackson >>

T H I S  W E E K  I N  H I S T O R Y

November 21, 1840:  With the printing of The Lord's Prayer in modern Syriac (Assyrian) the American Mission's Printing Press in Urmie gives life to the Assyrian literary and journalistic endeavors of the Nineteenth Century.


According to Homer Younan of Grafeex in San Jose, California his company's recently-developed website has received over 16,000 hits during the first four weeks of its existance.  "We are innundated with requests from around the world on information ranging from Assyrian marriage ceremony to academicians requesting help on their research project", said Younan in a brief discussion with ZENDA last week.  Assryian Cyber Library's attractive graphics, from the navigational bars to the visual essays written by Grafeex' Assyrian contributors are both visually and artistically pleasing to the wary eyes of today's information-hungry web surfers.  Grafeex is a well recognized publisher of Assyrian booklets, magazines, and the Assyrian Directory.

Visit:  Assyrian Cyber Library

S H E K E L S  &  M I N A S


The following is an excerpt of what was posted on our E-mail system,  it is also on our Intranet as well as the Internet, therefore it is available for the public. If anyone is interested please feel free to contact me through ZENDA.  Aside for the positions below, there are several IT positions available requiring moderate experience in one of the many programming languages and Internet applications available today. (e.g. Visual Basic, MS access, Power Builder, C & C++, SQL*net, ORACLE, Java ...etc.)  Openings for which S&L Engineering is actively recruiting include:

* Instrumentation and Control Engineers:  All levels, preferably with nuclear background and preferably with experience with set point calculations, as well as good candidates with I&C background in the power industry.
* Nuclear HVAC Engineers with more than 5 years of experience, particularly HVAC system design for nuclear stations.
* Electrical Engineers: All levels, preferably with nuclear experience, but most definitely with a power background
* Mechanical Engineers: All levels but especially systems engineers with 10+ years of experience within the power industry and experts in cycle performance
* Piping Analysts: All levels of experience.
* Structural Engineers: Entry level (0-5 years)
* Engineering Specialists/Experts in SCR Systems Design, SO2 Control Systems, SCR Technology, Boiler NOx Reduction, Combined-Cycle Technology, Valve Selection & Application, Pump Selection & Application.

JOB CODE:  1100

W E L C O M E   to   Z E N D A

PERSONAL ACCOUNTS                          

S A L U T E !
 This Week's Reporters:

Carlo Ganjeh                     San Jose, California          Surfers Corner
Elie Gergi                          Stockholm, Sweden          News Digest
Firas Jatou                         Chicago, Illinois                News Digest
Tony Khoshaba                 Chicago, Illinois                News Digest
William Mikhael                 Sweden                            Good Morning Bet-Nahrain


Thank You For Referring ZENDA to a Friend:

Rachelle Badal                   San Jose, California

Would you like to know more about a particular topic on Assyrian culture, arts, history, language, politics, etc.  Drop us a note!

Are your old Assyrian books and magazines sitting at home eating dust?  How about sending them to ZENDA so we may share their information with our readers.  ZENDA will gladly cover your cost of postage and handling.

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