SYRIAC LANGUAGE & LITERATURE
Syriac is the important branch of the group of Semitic languages known as Aramaic. In the time of Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), Aramaic was the official language of all the nations from Asia Minor to Persia, from Armenia to Arabian Peninsula. It was divided into two dialects: the western, used in Palestine and Syria by the Jews, Palmyrans, and Nabateans; the eastern, spoken in Bet-Nahrain (Mesopotamia). The Syriac language, as we know it from its literature, did not spring from the dialect spoken in Syria, but from the eastern Mesopotamian dialect. When the weakened Seleucides ceased to defend the Euphrates, small independent principalities were formed in that region. The most famous was the little Kingdom of Edessa. Edessa (Assyrian Urhai) was both a religious and intellectual center, and even then the language of its people attained great perfection. A little later under the influence of Christianity it developed considerably, and eventually became the liturgical and literary language of all the Churches from the shores of the Mediterranean to the center of Persia. The suppleness and flexibility of this dialect and its loose and variable syntax readily lent itself to the most different constructions, and offered to Christianity a more appropriate instrument than Greek for the expression and spread of new ideas. In Syria proper and western Mesopotamia Syriac was first used simultaneously with Greek, but after the Monophysite schism Greek gradually fell into disuse. The period from the middle of the fifth century to the end of the seventh was the most brilliant period of Syriac literature. The Moslem invasion brought about the decadence by imposing Arabic as the official language; the latter rapidly came into general use, and Syriac was no longer spoken or understood by the people, although it was upheld as a literary language for four centuries longer, and until the present time as a liturgical language. Nevertheless, the destruction was not complete; Syriac, or rather Aramaic, modified according to the laws of evolution common to all languages, is still spoken among the Assyrian of the Middle East: in Syria (Khabour region), Turkey (Tur Abdin region), throughout Iraq, Northwestern and central Iran, especially in the neighborhood of Urmie.
The works transmitted to us in the Syriac language form an essentially
and almost exclusively Christian religious literature. After
Latin and Greek there is none more useful to the exegete, the theologian, and the ecclesiastical historian. We know of more
than 150 authors who wrote in Syriac from the fourth to the thirteenth century. The libraries of Europe and those of some eastern monasteries which are of easy access possess nearly 3000 manuscripts, containing the greater part of these works. During the seventh century public events had created new conditions in the lands where Syriac was spoken. The end of the
Roman domination in Syria almost coincided with the fall of the Persian dynasty of the Sassanides, and the Moslem rule
enforced the use of the Arabic tongue. These new conditions introduced a new character in literature. Theological treatises were thenceforth more didactic than polemic, and Biblical exegesis became chiefly grammatical and philological. The eighth century began a period of decadence.
The ninth century witnessed a renaissance in scientific and historical
studies. Among the Assyrians there was a series of physicians who enjoyed
the favor of the caliphs of Baghdad; Gabriel Bokhtisho (d. 828), John bar
Maswai (d. 857),
Honein (d. 873), and at the end of the century John bar Serapion were famous among Christians and Moslems for their medical
works and their translations into Syriac and Arabic of the Dioscorides, Hippocrates, Galen, and Paul of Agima. Honein was at
once physician, philosopher, historian, grammarian, and lexicographer. His disciple Isho bar Ali is the author of a voluminous
lexicon (ed. Hoffmann, Kiel, 1874; Gottheil, Rome, 1910). The patriarch, Isho bar Noun (823-27), was esteemed as a
theologian and canonist; of his numerous works there remain juridical questions, questions of Scripture, funeral orations, and
letters. Ishodad of Merw, Bishop of Haditha, about the middle of the century composed commentaries on the Old and New
Testaments, which are of great interest in the history of exegesis. In 840 Thomas, Bishop of Marga, a former monk of Beit
Abê, wrote the history of that famous convent which was located in his diocese, and fortunately he inserted therein numerous
documents which would not otherwise be known to us; hence he work sheds much light on the history of the whole Assyrian Church during a period of three centuries.
During the next two centuries most of the ecclesiastical dignitaries and the rare authors who concerned themselves with learning wrote chiefly in Arabic. The thirteenth century marks the end of Syriac literature. The great services rendered to scholarship by translations which form a large part of Syriac literature should not be lost sight of; including Greek scientific and theological works, principally those of Aristotle and his school. It was through this intermediary that the Arabs became acquainted with scientific culture, and came into contact with Hellenic philosophy, so that the important part they played in the propagation of the sciences during the Middle Ages had its origin in Syriac literature. The "Romance of Alexander" and that of "Kalila and Dimna" were both translated from the Pahlavi about the sixth century. A portion of the works of the most celebrated of the Greek fathers of the fourth and fifth centuries were translated into Syriac; they possess only a secondary importance where we have the original texts, but are of the greatest value when they represent lost works.
Adopted from an article in the Catholic Encyclopedia written by J.B. Chabot
EVANGELICAL CHURCH ATTACKED IN IRAQ
(ZNDA: Dohuk) An Evangelical church being constructed in the Northern Iraqi city of Dohuk was attacked by a mob of stone-throwing Moslems, according to a report from Compass Direct. Following the attack, four armed men reportedly came back and threatened to kill the Assyrian pastor if he did not "leave Kurdistan immediately." They vowed to bomb the church with rocket-propelled grenades if it opened again. Pastor Yusef Matti was reportedly forced to close his church and go into hiding with his family after the attack against Grace Evangelical Church. Together with his wife and three children, Matti had lived on the ground floor of the partially completed church. The attackers reportedly broke out all of the windows and attempted to storm the family living quarters when Matti left his home to call the police. Two days later, Dohuk police chief Ahmed Nazar informed Matti that local authorities could offer him no protection, and urged him to leave the region. A Kurdish guard at the church property reports that the four men who threatened Matti were driving a new Mercedes-Benz owned by a high-level Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) official in Dohuk. Pastor Matti is the only Protestant pastor in Northern Iraq who has seen his small Dohuk congregation grow to more than 100. The damaged church property remains closed and under guard, and Matti and his family have gone into hiding. The Christian FM radio station licensed to Matti by the KDP continues to broadcast six hours everyday from Dohuk. This year alone 60 tons of books, mostly Good News Arabic Bibles, Children's Bibles and other Biblical handbooks, were delivered to Iraq (Christian Times/Dec 1997).
SADDAM HUSSEIN THANKS VATICAN FOR SYMPATHY FOR IRAQIS' SUFFERING
(ZNAF: Vatican) The Vatican reports that President Saddam Hussein thanked Pope John Paul II for his interest in seeing the suffering of the Iraqi people alleviated, disclosing that the Pope had received a personal letter from the Iraqi leader. The pope has condemned an embargo, imposed by the United Nations after Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, saying sanctions generally hit the poor hardest in any given country. Saddam last thanked the pope before the 1991 Gulf War for appeals to find a negotiated settlement to the Kuwaiti crisis.
"I would point out to you in the recent version of Zenda, the title "Arab Ignorance" is a very serious editorial error which should have been caught with a normal editorial review. The article itself speaks of "Arab Arrogance" yet the Title of the article and index page are shown in a very irresponsible and provocative misprint (I hope it is only a misprint).
We Assyrians should know better than anyone what type of trouble and violence escalated racial prejudice will cause as we have suffered too long ourselves. Israel has not been free from violence because of the refusal of its people to let go of this hate-stereotyping. Mistakes such as the one in Zenda can only add to our problems. The power of the media carries responsibility. Zenda needs to accept its popularity with the understanding that it will not purposefully mislead or lie or ignore lies. Please be responsible and retract the headlines to reflect the article.
If we hate Arab people, we are worse than their worst ones. If we hate all Kurds, or Turks, we have learned nothing. They are not all ignorant. We know that. Why say it? Let's speak the truth about what is happening and by whom. Let us tell the history of the region, but not call whole races of people silly children's' names. Thank you for listening."
"...I would like very much to be on your list
for your magazine. I have seen some Assyrian web pages and they are beautiful
but also sad because of the cruelty that has been inflicted on the Assyrian
Nation. It is a tragedy that the "Christian" West does not take an interest
in the plight of Middle Eastern Christians. As I wrote to the WLO, the
media are constantly bombarding us about the "Palestinians." What about
the Maronites, Assyrians, and other legitimate minorities of the Middle
East? I am amazed at the total ignorance and callousness of people who
pretend to be interested in certain minorities but deliberately choose
to ignore other minorities. The Assyrians were betrayed by the nations of the world, yet the Iraqis and other Arab Muslims are never called on for an accounting of their (mis)deeds. (Sorry for my pontification, but this really makes my blood boil! There is a real double standard in this world. Arab colonialism is ignored, and the legitimate rights of non-Arabs are trampled upon. Good luck with your cause. It would be nice if an independent Assyria would arise one day again on its historical land...One thing that I have found interesting on the web is the amount of websites and pages dealing with the incident at Sabra and Shatilla in 1982. Pray tell, how many websites are there that deal with Semele (if I am spelling the name of the town right) in and what the Arabs committed against the Assyrians with Napalm and other weaponry? The world silence is deafening. Be Strong and of Good Courage!"
"Last week was the beginning of a happy life for my Internet Assyrian brother, Raman Michael and his Wife Antoinette. I missed the wedding due to the busy life in Silicon Valley. Here is what my Internet sister, Rita Knight, 3rd generation Assyrian, from Chicago wrote me. I want to share you her view of the wedding because we don't see what others see and don't notice the beauty of our nation and our people. Dear Raman and Antoinette, wish you a happy life and a successful marriage. May your marriage be blessed with many Ashurs and Ashurinas. God Bless you and our nation. :-)
San Jose, CA
"The weather here in Chicago didn't diminish the brightness and the beauty of this day. Antoinette was radiant and Ramon looked so handsome in his tux. The ceremony was touching and all I could think of was how many of our ancestors were married in this same way. The reception was very classy and oh what a beautiful people we are. I never saw so many good looking people in my life. As I looked around the room I had memories of the Assyrian weddings I had attended as a child. I half expected to see my grandmother and mother walk thru the door. I didn't know many people there yet I was comfortable surrounded by "My People". My husband who is just recovering from pneumonia was not able to attend but my son and daughter in law and my sister in law did. They all has a wonderful time and my sister in law who is from Alabama was in awe especially when she say everyone dancing the "shahoni". She also remarked what a warm and friendly people we were . She finally understands why my family kisses everyone.
Oh yes I must not forget, I was honored to meet Ninous Younan and his beautiful wife. I truly understand what my grandmother always said when she told us ,all Assyrians are cousins after meeting Mr & Mrs Younan. To Ramon and Antoinette I wish God's Blessings and all their hearts desires. And thank You for allowing me and my family to share your special day. You two represent the future of Assyria. ASSYRIANS FOREVER."
The Assyrian village of Araden in Northern Iraq like so many other mountain
villages has been the tragic site of numerous incursions by both Kurds
and Iraqi soldiers, including helicopter and airplane bombings intended
to clear the Assyrians and Kurds away to larger cities such as Mosul,
where they will not cause trouble. Iraqi soldiers would come into
the village and remove as many arms, including all the hunting rifles,
as they could find, feeling entirely free to enter homes and search as
long as they wished. When they left, Kurds would follow the departing
soldiers and themselves rummage through the town for
valuables, knowing the people were now unarmed. They would interrogate Assyrians by force and brutality to discover if the Iraqis had said anything which could be useful. Unfortunately, beautiful young girls had to be sheltered from the Kurds or risk kidnapping and forced marriage.
The constant persecution, bombings and harassment, eventually turned
the Assyrian village of Araden into a ghost town. It appeared the
Iraqi goal had been achieved. There is a mirror village further up
the mountain, also named Araden, which has been entirely Kurdish.
With the abandonment of the Assyrian Araden, the Kurds began slowly populating
this lower village. This village of my father, Afram Rayis, the recent
recipient of the Man of the Year award at the Meeting of the Assyrian
Federations in Dearborn, Michigan. (See Zenda Article of Sargon Lewie, Nov. 17).
Mr. Afram Rayis has, with other native Araden villagers, started the Araden Aid Society for the purpose of securing the village back to the Assyrians and convincing Assyrian and Chaldean people in Baghdad, Mosul and elsewhere to move into the homes of Araden. The houses are being bought and upgraded with proper living amenities and security. Three Araden natives are currently working in Mosul and Baghdad for this purpose on behalf of the Araden Aid Society.
The only way to avoid abandonment of Assyria to the Kurdish and Arab people, is to ensure that there are Assyrians still willing to live in the native region. Membership in the Araden Aid Society is open to all native Araden people at $10.00 per month. Thank you for listening.
Araden Aid Society
P.O. Box 2857
Southfield MI 48037
President, Afram Rayis
Tel. (248) 352-0214
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE INFLUENCE OF MAINT EPHRAIM (MAR APRIM)
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
17-18 December 1997
Contact Dr Andrew Palmer, 0171 323 6249, firstname.lastname@example.org
Wednesday, 17th December
09:00 a.m. Registration: £20, including breaks and lunches, but not dinners; concessions £15
Chair: Mr Simon Weightman, Head of the Department of the Study of Religions,
09:45 a.m. Mar Gregorios Yohanna Ibrahim, Syrian Orthodox Metropolitan of Aleppo, "Ephraim and Ecumenism"
10:15 a.m. Dr Sebastian Brock, FBA, Oxford, "Ephraim in the eyes of later Syriac tradition"
11:00 a.m. Break
Chair: The Reverend David Lane, Former Principal, The College of the Resurrection,
11:15 a.m. Mr Manolis Papoutsakis, Oxford, "Jacob of Serugh and Ephraim"
11:45 a.m. Metropolitan Bishop Mattheus Mar Grigorios, Kottayam, Orthodox Seminary, "Philoxenos and Ephraim"
12:15 p.m. Dr Andrew Palmer, SOAS, "Early readers of Ephraim: the evidence of the interpolations"
01:00 p.m. Lunch
Chair: Professor George Hewitt, FBA, SOAS
01:30 p.m. Professor Bernard Outtier, CNRS, Paris, "Ephraim's influence in Armenia and Georgia"
02:00 p.m. Dr David Taylor, Birmingham, "Ephraim's influence on the Greeks"
02:30 p.m. Zaga Gavrilovic, Birmingham, "Ephraim's thought and imagery as a source of inspiration to Byzantine artists"
03:30 p.m. Break
Chair: The Right Reverend Bishop Basil of Sergievo, Assistant Bishop in
the Russian Orthodox Church
in Great Britain (Diocese of Sourozh)
03:45 p.m. Archimandrite Ephrem Lash, "Ephraïm the Greek and the metre of Mår Afrêm: a mystery for Hercule Poirot?"
04:15 p.m. Professor Dorin Oancea, Sibiu, "Orthodox theology and the works of Ephraim"
Chair: Dr Andrew Palmer, SOAS
05:15 p.m. Discussion of Ephraim's influence in the East and particularly of the distinction between the real Ephraim and his
imitators whose works were handed down as his
06:00 p.m. Reception for the speakers
07:30 p.m. CONCERT: admission by programme
£5 (£3 for conference members)
A concert given by various choirs, performing works of St Ephraim and Romanos the Melode in Syriac,
Armenian, Ethiopic, Russian, Greek, Arabic and English
Thursday, 18th December, 1997: Ephraim in the world today and the Ephremic tradition in the West
Chair: The Right Reverend John Dennis, Formerly Bishop of St Edmundsbury
and Some Time Adviser to the
Archbishop of Canterbury on the Oriental Orthodox Churches
09.00 a.m. The Reverend M. P. George, "Ephraim's influence on the Indian Churches"
09.30 a.m. The Reverend Dr Thomas Kunammakkal, Saint Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, Kottayam, Kerala,
"Ephraim's ideas on singleness"
10.15 a.m. The Reverend Dr Robert Murray, SJ, Heythrop College, London, "The Ephremic tradition and the theology
of the environment"
11.00 a.m. Break
Chair: Professor Janet L. Nelson, FBA, King's College, London
11.15 Dr Jane Stevenson, "The influence of Ephraim in seventh-century Canterbury"
12 Noon Dr David Ganz, King's College, London, "Merovingian readers of Ephraim"
12:45 p.m. Lunch
Chair: Dr Miri Rubin, Pembroke College, Oxford
01:30 p.m. Dr Margot Schmidt, Eichstätt, "Some parallels between Ephraim and Hildegard of Bingen"
02:15 a.m. Miss Farida Boulos, Aleppo, "Women in the Church: Ephraim's contribution"
Chair: The Reverend Canon Donald Allchin, Honorary Professor of the University
03:00 p.m. Revd Dr Gordon Wakefield, "John Wesley and Ephraim"
03:45 p.m. Right Revd. Dr Geoffrey Rowell, Bishop of Basingstoke, Adviser to the Archbishop of Canterbury on the
Oriental Churches, "'Making the Church of England Poetical': St Ephraim and the Oxford Movement"
04:30 p.m. Break
Chair: The Reverend Professor Sidney Griffith, Catholic University of America
04:45 p.m. The Reverend Professor Samir Khalil Samir, SJ, Beirut/Cairo/Rome, "The Arabic Afrâm: Problems and
05:30 p.m. Discussion of Ephraim's influence in the West and in the world today.
Chair: Dr Andrew Palmer, SOAS
06:00 p.m. (for speakers only) MEETING ON THE PUBLICATION OF THE PROCEEDINGS
07:30 p.m. PUBLIC LECTURE
Chair: The Right Reverend Dr Kallistos Ware, Bishop of Diokleia, Fellow
of Pembroke College, Spalding
Lecturer in Eastern Orthodox Studies
The Reverend Professor Sidney Griffith, CatholicUniversity of America:
"A SPIRITUAL FATHER FOR THE WHOLE CHURCH: THE UNIVERSAL APPEAL OF
ST EPHRAEM THE SYRIAN"
09:00 p.m. Dinner for the speakers
Colloquium: Western Perspectives on the Syrian Orthodox Heritage
Saturday, November 9, 1996, 6:30 pm
In connection with the feast day of Mor Gheevarghese of Parumala the St. Mary's Church organized a colloquium on the heritage of the Syrian Orthodox Church. The talk featured George Kiraz, Ph.D., director of the The Syriac Computing Institute and Cynthia Villagomez, a Ph.D. candidate in Syrian asceticism at UCLA. In addition, Archbishops Mor Nicholovos Zachariah and Mor Clemis Augen addressed the audience.
NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY: AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
Loyola Marymount University
Near Eastern Archaeology into the 21st Century.
New Methods. New Interpretations. New Challenges
9-12 January 1998
ZAHI HAWASS, Egyptian Department of Antiquities for the Giza Plain
KENT WEEKS, American University in Cairo
GHAZI BISHEH, Director of the Jordanian Department of Antiquities
PIERRE BIKAL, Director, American Center of Oriental Research, Amman, Jordan
ISRAEL FINKELSTEIN, Director, Archaeological Institute at Tel Aviv University
MOAWIYAH IBRAHIM, Chair, Department of Archaeolgy, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
LEILA BADRE, American University of Beirut; DEMETRIOS MICHAELIDES, University of Cyprus.
For registration forms or information contact:
Near Eastern Archaeology Conference
Office of International Programs
Loyola Marymount Univresity
7900 Loyola Blvd.
CA 900045-8360 USA
Telephone: (310) 338-1971 (800) 638-7426
FAX (310) 338-2706
ASSYRIANS INVADE UNITED NATIONS CENTER IN PROTEST AGAINST TURKEY
(ZNRU: Geneva) A group (of Assyrians) identified as Syriac
Christians from southeast Turkey briefly occupied part of the United Nations'
European headquarters in Geneva on 14 November, demanding action to stop
what they said was a Turkish clampdown on their rights. Three shocked U.N.
security guards looked on as nearly 100 protesters, mainly men but also
including some women and children, rushed past the main gate of the sprawling
1930s complex and forced their way into the Palais des Nations. Th
spokesman, Habip Pincaro, appeared surprised that the group managed to
get in to the high-security premises. "We just walked past the guards,"
he said. "It was easy." Thousands of Assyrians live uneasily in and
around the southeast Turkish town of Midyat where they are mainly members
of the Syrian Orthodox Church. Pincaro said the group was protesting
against what he said was a Turkish government decision to close monasteries
and churches of the Syriac
Christians in Turkey, the remnants of one of the most ancient Christian communities in the Middle East. The protest was peaceful and the group left after U.N. officials agreed to meet their representatives to discuss their grievances. The U.N. office in Geneva is the world body's center for dealing with human rights' issues. One protester who gave his name as Isa Yalin said he feared the Turkish authorities wanted to convert the community's remaining churches in Turkey into mosques. "Since the Ottoman times, Turkey has never recognized our rights. Our churches are the only place where our ancient language is taught and now they are trying to shut them down."
The Assyrian Academic Society in Chicago held their annual elections on Sunday, November 16, 1997. The new officers for 1997-1998 are:
President Nadia E. Joseph
Vice President Yokhana Alkass
Secretary Natalie Abraham
Treasurer Ramy Antar
Standing Committees Chairpersons:
Publications Committee Robert DeKalaita
Public Programs Committee Peter BetBasoo
Ways and Means Committee Firas Jatou
Education and Counseling Committee Raabi Zia Kanoon
Finance Committee Ramy Antar
Membership and by-laws Committee Sabah Shamoon
The nomination process for the Board of Advisors will be determined at successive AAS Executive Body meetings and an official announcement will be made once the names of selected individuals have been approved and finalized.
AN ASSYRIAN PALACE RELIEF AT MEDELHAVSMUSEET, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN
(ZNDA: Stockholm) The more than two meter high relief is
one of over 400 carved in the soft limestone called 'Mosul marble' that
covered the walls of the major rooms in the Northwest palace of the Assyrian
capital Calah known today as Nimrud. The relief was excavated by the English
in the middle of the 1800's. Ashurnasirpal II, the Assyrian king
who ruled between 883-859 BC, built the palace. A smaller extension of
one of the major dining rooms in the palace contained our wall relief and
18 other similar ones. All but one had the same subject as ours: a winged
male protecting genie standing at a stylized tree. The exception was the
panel opposite the entrance to the hall which portrayed the king. All traces
of the original painting of the relief's have disappeared.
The genies were portrayed in the same way as the king but have horns and
wings instead of the king's crown. In one hand they carry a bucket, in
the other a fertility symbol in the form of a pine cone. Across the middle
section of this relief as on all the reliefs in the palace is a long cuneiform inscription about the war campaigns Ashurnasirpal conducted and how he built the palace. The Palace Relief can be viewed Tuesday through Sunday from 11:00 am to 4:00 pm.
FRANCE OFFERS ASYLUM FOR MARONITE JOURNALIST
(ZNAF: Paris) Pierre Attallah, a Maronite-Lebanese journalist wanted in his home country over alleged contacts with Israeli agents said he had been granted political asylum in France. Attallah, who faces a military tribunal in Lebanon, works for the daily al-Nahar, has been in France for five months. He arrived via Germany after fleeing Lebanon before his case came to court.
BITS & PIECES...
Iraqi Illegal Immigrants Arrested by Turkish Authorities
(ZNAF: Ankara) Turkish authorities detained 60 Iraqis as they tried to enter neighboring Greece illegally, the Anatolia news agency reported Wednesday. The illegal immigrants were found inside a large truck at the Ipsala border post, 200 kilometers (125 miles) west of Istanbul. The illegal immigrants were understood to have been seeking asylum in Greece or elsewhere in western Europe, mainly to flee economic hardship. There may be as many as 4000 Assyrian refugees living in Turkey awaiting entry into a European or North American country. The identities of the arrested immigrants were not revealed at ZENDA presstime.
Australia 2 Iran 2: Iran qualifies for World Cup
(ZNAF: Tehran) The Iranian national team's eleventh-hour qualification
for the finals of the 1998 World Cup in France was
nothing short of miraculous, the Tehran press reported yesterday. The two goals in the space of three minutes after the 76th minute of the game saw Iran go through to the finals on the away goals rule. The Brazilian coach of Iran's national team, Valdeir "Badu" Vieira, has become a national hero in Iran. Iran's only other appearance in the World Cup finals was in Argentina in 1978. Saudi Arabia is the only other Middle Eastern country qualified for the 1998 FIFA World Cup in France.
ASSYRIAN SURFING POSTS
UP THE VOLUME
English Modern Assyrian
Genius raab/ho/na [M]
Idiot boo/ra <or> Sakh/la [M]
F = Feminine M = Masculine P = Plural
BACK TO THE FUTURE
Pottery is invented in Bet-Nahrain. The finest pottery came from northern Bet-Nahrain (Turkey/Iraq) where whirling design, derived from human or animal shapes adorned the interior of the wide and shallow bowls.
Ancient Near Eastern Art, Collon
German scholar, Schlozer, coins the term "Semitic" to denote a group of closely related languages such as Syriac, Hebrew, and Akkadian (ancient Assyrian). The people who spoke these languages were then called "Semites." Both words come from Shem, son of Noah, father of Ashur, Aram, and Heber as written in the book of Genesis, Chapter 10, 21-31.
Ancient Iraq, Roux
BILL RICHARDSON ON SADDAM HUSSEIN
Bill Richardson is America's chief representative and negotiator at the United Nations:
"With Saddam you can't show weakness. When I did not apologize for crossing my legs, which was a mistake on my part, he respected that, I could tell. And when I wouldn't give in to his arguments, he respected it. You cannot have a personal connection with him, because at the beginning he tries to intimidate you- by the way he looks at you, by his rhetoric, by his uniform and his weapon and his security. We were totally on his turf. I am one person, and he has all these weapons and a gleaming uniform... He was polite, He was very direct. At the end, we kidded about taking a picture together. I told him it would not help me politically, and he said it wouldn't help him either. And then we both smiled."
San Jose Mercury News, September 14, 1997
THIS WEEK IN HISTORY
December 5, 1937: dies, Alphonse Mingana, Assyrian scholar whose
"Mingana Collection" has contributed much to the early Christian-Moslem
ASSYRIAN WOMAN WINS THE 1997 MACROMEDIA PEOPLE'S CHOICE AWARD
Ramina Khachi, a resident of San Jose, California, was recently awarded the 1997 Macromedia People's Choice Award for "Best of Show Graphics." Selected from over 1,500 entries Khachi's work represented "the best projects created with Macromedia tools in the past year." These tools included Director, FreeHand, xRes, & Extreme 3D. Winners were voted on by attendees of the 1997 Macromedia International User Conference.
Visit: Ramina Khachi Design
WELCOME TO ZENDA
SBS Radio Station, Sydney, Australia
City University of New York
University of Salamanca, Spain
This Week's Reporters:
News Digest & Bravo
Elif Kaban Geneva, Switzerland News Digest
Firas Jatou Chicago, Illinois Assyrian Surfing Posts & Surfers Corner
Francis Sarguis Santa Barbara, California News Digest
George Kiraz New Jersey, U.S. Surfers Corner
Dr. Manfred Alkhas San Jose, California Good Morning Bet-Nahrain
Nadia Joseph Chicago, Illinois Bravo
Tony Khoshaba Chicago, Illinois Surfers Corner
Thank You For Referring ZENDA to a Friend:
Firas Jatou Chicago, Illinois
P.O. Box 20278 San Jose, California 95160 U.S.A.
ZNAA (Assyrian Academic Society-Chicago)