Vol IV, Issue 5

Neesan 6, 6748                   April 6, 1998

T H I S   W E E K   I N   Z E N D A

The Lighthouse The Christian Assyrian Nation
Good Morning Bet-Nahrain PKK & Turkey May End Armed Struggle in Bet-Nahrain
Surfs Up "I am very glad to have found you"
Surfers Corner Assyrians of San Jose Seek Help For Mayoral Candidate
A Magazine On the Life of Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII 
News Digest Sargon Dadesho vs. Government of Iraq
Mor Zakka Consecrates Church in Australia
Calendar of Events Assyrian Evening in Hamburg, Germany
Assyrian Surfing Posts Assyrian Democratic Organization
Henry Layard's "Nineveh & Babylon, 2nd Expedition"
Pump up the Volume Translation & Interpretation
Back to the Future Ancient Massage Therapy & the 7th Century Persecutions
Literatus Ancient Greeks on the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
This Week in History 30th Anniversary of The First AUA Congress
Bravo The Kha b'Neesan Parade in Chicago



ZENDA Says...

For the past two weeks Assyrians from Australia to Germany to Bet-Nahrain have been celebrating Kha b'Neesan with a remarkable vigor.  The Assyrian New Year's celebration has clearly become the most visible public demonstration of national struggle towards unity and a singular ethno-political identity.   In northern Iraq over 17,000 Assyrians jammed the streets of Noohadra (Dohuk) and Arbil to celebrate the beginning of the Assyrian Year 6748.  Last weekend the pedestrian pathways along Chicago's King Sargon Boulevard (Western Blvd.) were embellished with thousands of waving Assyrian flags and an overwhelming feeling of Assyrian pride (see BRAVO).  Of course many other Assyrian organizations celebrated the coming of spring with the dull and wearisome dinner-dance combo, a practice typically denuded of any knowledge of Assyrian history and tradition.  There were no walls or table center-pieces decorated with the Assyrian Tree of Life and no mention of the Return of Tammuz from the Dead, Enuma Elish, and the ancient 12-day Akitu festival in Nineveh and Babylon.  For the more affluent organizations Kha b'Neesan has become another venue to generate petty profits and organize campaign fundraising for their local politicians.  In the coming years we only hope that more and more political and social organizations will focus on the cultural importance of the Assyrian New Year celebrations and less to the demands of their nonchalant Entertainment organizers.  The Patriarchs of all Assyrian Churches should offer Neesan Prayers and Mass on the first day of spring and the Assyrians around the world must take a day off from their work and school to celebrate the oldest and the greatest Assyrian festivity since the building of the city of Ashur and its sacred buildings and palaces in 4750 B.C.



There is a hymn which we sing occasionally in our Church, that makes me both happy and sad at the same time. Happy because it begins with SHALOM MY FRIENDS as our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ instructed his disciples and us to be. Sad because I have never heard anyone outside our people-the Assyrians uttering our word SHLAMA, despite the Aramaic language being the language of the Gospel and the early Church believers. This represents the failure of our previous ancestors to communicate to us and to the outside world our rich and wealthy cultural heritage.

I grew up in the Middle East in a country to which I refuse to give a name because it reminds me of a tragic and inhumane society, a culture and above all a teaching of hate, which up to now prevailed.  I was never an Assyrian nationalist, but rather was a national and a practicing Christian. At the age of 33 I was feeling confined and so despite a good education I decided I no longer had a place in a society driven by an ideology of hate, so I left. It was here that I have developed my Assyrian identity as I followed the regional and global events and the Middle East in particular.  In my early years here while browsing a history book of ancient Mesopotamia I came across maps and in those maps were names like IDIGLAT, PURATTU, ZABU ELLU and ZABU SHAPLU. The names used by our forefathers who once ruled that land from the great rivers to the sea and who created the first civilisation in the history of mankind. That was the motivation that led me to think about our glorious past and our great nation.

Presently our land is dominated and governed by invaders while we the native people-the Assyrians are treated as strangers in our own land. We have no part in its wealth and power.  The status quo, giving the occupier the upper hand, ruled as inferiors without citizenship, worrying about our men, our daughters and our perplexed youth-a people under siege. Leave us two options either accept or go. In times of crisis we are the first to be sacrificed to keep the throne of the occupier intact.  As I remember my early years in the Middle East, my town and other towns,  our people and our tormented land, I think how beautiful it would be once again our own masters.

But despite of our failures we must not give up and must pursue our struggle by all means available to achieve that end of establishing a nation in our historic Assyrian land and regain a place on the world's map. We have to look to the future and seize every opportunity that comes.  By the Assyrian National Flag and the Assyrian National Anthem and through our Assyrian history we are joined in the Assyrian Nation and Assyrian's glorious past. A Nation in waiting and a nation in exile.  There is joy in this and there is grief too, but never lose hope and ever be faithful to our Lord and our Christian heritage. We are Christian and Assyrian and we have been and are hated and persecuted for our faith rather than our race.
We must never fail to identify ourselves as Christian, in our faith and in our demeanour and in our way of life. We have the present and future as well as a past and our Church and our nation go hand in hand. We
must reflect our faith and our Christian heritage with every step we take.

Since the autumn I have been following ZENDA weekly and I come across varying views and agendas. Although the main one is the  will and determination for a homeland in our occupied land and the fervor of Assyrian Nationalism, some views must be put aside. We must stop blaming the past, the erstwhile colonisers, past preachers of the Gospel of Salvation, or our foreign names. We must never ever betray our cause by praising the occupier.  The world has changed and is changing  and we must change too and form the new realities of the comtemporary world. Emancipation and freedom  do not come easy.
We all will live together in peace and liberty:  Catholic, Orthodox, Nestorian, Evangelical, Secular and Minorities. All will form a society based on human dignity in a civilised way according with our Assyrian and Christian culture.

The hard work is now ahead and the events and opportunities are opening up.  We all must work together minimising our different views but forming a united front to achieve what our forefathers once did by shaping that land from the Persian frontiers to the Mediterranean sea into one Assyrian Nation
and one Assyrian people.  That nation will be Christian and Assyrian and once we have it then the whole
world will know the word SHLAMA as the whole world now knows the word SHALOM.

Dr George Habash
United Kingdom



(ZNAF:  Ankara)  Last week Abdullah Ocalan, the leader of Kurdish separatist group Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) in northeastern Bet-Nahrain, offered a ceasefire in the 13-year armed struggle with the Turkish military.  The offer was made in a letter to the armed forces chief of staff.  "We are willing to order a ceasefire that might open the door to a dialogue and find a solution to the Kurdish national question," was the letter quoted as saying.  PKK rebels have been fighting since 1984 for a Kurdish state in southeast Turkey. Some 29,000 people have died in the conflict.  The PKK ordered unilateral ceasefires in 1993 and 1995, but on each occasion the military refused to recognize the move and continued its normal operations against the rebels.

Last Thursday the Turkish army launched a major offensive against PKK in the southeast province of Sirnak, near the Iraqi border.  The land operation, backed by helicopters, was expected to last several days and was centered on Mount Cudi, in the region of Ballikaya.  Mount Cudi, which has an altitude of over 2,000 meters (7,000 feet), is used by the Kurdistan Workers Party as a passageway between Turkey and rear bases in Iraq.  The Assyrian residents of northern Bet-Nahrain (northern Iraq, southern Turkey, & northeastern Syria) while neutral in their position toward Kurdish autonomy continue to be victims of the armed struggle between the rebel Kurdish groups and the Turkish armed forces.


"Yesterday, Saturday, April 4, 1998, we read the posted article from Zenda about the verdict of David M. Ismail, the murderer,  on our weekly radio FM 101.5 at 3 pm in Hamilton, Ontario.  President of the AUA in Hamilton, Emmanuel Yald, called the station several times, shouting, and complaining, and above all, ordering not to read the article, and telling us "You have no right to bring us such news".  The station continued to read the article posted in Zenda accompanied by nationalistic songs over ten times, and prayers for His Holiness Mar Eshia Shimun.  At the same time, over fifty calls were received in support of such work, in bringing history and facts back to life, so that our new generation will understand and know the dark history of our Assyrian people."

Assyrian Voice of Canada - FM 101.5

"I do not know whether its because I am assyrian or just because you guys are so great with people. I just wanted to say that I am very glad to have found you because my emotional and mental status is put at great ease when I know that every time I ask for something from someone, the only group which will always attend to my needs would be my own community..."

Sharrukina Malek Rostamy
Sydney, Australia

"Orientalist Wisdom According To Lord Cromer:  I was reading an interesting book called Orientalism by Dr. Edward Saiid. Dr. Saiid is a distinguished Professor at Columbia School of Humanities.    He was born in Jerusalem and  writes about western mentality toward the Orient.  In his studies he comes across European scholars that were trained to form specific opinions in order to facilitate the colonization of the world.   This plan was organized by the   British Government in order to manufacture consent. Colonization could not have happened without first Christianizing the population. Remember the history of the  American continent: Slaughter of the natives;  reservations; starvation and religion. The idea  was to bring a common god to the masses,  so that local resistance  would be negligible. It is very clear  by 1998  where the American native stands.

Christianizing the local Christians was  part of a master plan to disengage the old church; create an atmosphere of distrust .  Missionary duty was to provide the avenue of communication, a mechanism which to spy and recruitment of a militia 'Hesbollah', Crusaders, one might say, fighting for a common good  !!   The British knew how to manipulate a few, and penetrate the rest, by promising favors: For example, green cards;  citizenship in a country with an Anglo alliance.  Not to forget:  blue jeans, panty hose,  favorite whiskey bottles like 'Johnny Doller'. Even my grandmother  received a sack of flour in Hamadan , where the nuns were nice to her.  Her reaction was,  “yob dva yomad”. She rejected the religion of a white trash European.  We shall not be had, she said.

My grandfather was a ten years old orphan in 1914 when he was separated from his sister during the Massacre. On the way to Baghdad , the Red Cross was offering safe haven for the orphans that were  not declared. What a Christian Act !!!  How convenient !!!  In reality, profits were made, babies  were sold for the highest bidders.  My grandfather was saved by a relative and  his sister ended up in Canada, not by her choice.

Assyrians should understand  history so as not to repeat it.   Lord Cromer,  in his memoirs writes about Sir Alfred Lyall:  'Accuracy is abhorrent to the Oriental mind.  Every  Anglo-Indian should always remember that maxim.' Want of accuracy, which easily degenerates into untruthfulness, is in fact the main characteristic of the Oriental mind!   According to Lord Cromer, the European is a close reasoner; his statements of fact are devoid of any ambiguity;  he is a  natural logician,  albeit he may not have studied logic;  he is by nature skeptical and requires proof before he can accept the truth of any proposition.  His trained intelligence works like a piece of mechanism.  The mind of the Oriental, on the other hand,  like his picturesque streets, is eminently wanting in symmetry.  His reasoning is of the most slipshod description.  Although the ancient Arabs acquired in a somewhat higher degree the science of dialectics, their descendants are singularly deficient in the logical faculty.

Cromer Continues to explain Arabs as often incapable of drawing the most obvious conclusions from any simple premises of which they may admit as the truth.  The Arab’s explanation will generally be lengthy, and wanting  in lucidity.  He will probably contradict himself half-a-dozen times before he has finished his story. He will often breakdown under the mildest process of cross-examination.  Cromer makes no effort to conceal that Orientals for him were always and only the human material he governed in British colonies.  'As I am only a diplomatist and administrator,  whose proper study is also man, but from the point of view of governing him,'  Cromer says,  '…..I content myself with noting the fact that somehow or other the Oriental generally acts , speaks, and thinks in a manner exactly opposite to the Europeans.'

Lord Cromer writes that there are Westerners and there are Orientals.  The former dominates; the latter must be dominated, which usually means having their land occupied, their internal affairs rigidly controlled, their blood and  treasure put at the disposal of one or another Western power.  For much of the nineteenth century, the British Government view of the Orient was intricately problematic :  'When you have got a ...faithful ally who is bent on meddling in a country in which you are deeply interested -- you have three course open to you.  You may renounce----or monopolize ---- or share.'

Hmmmm!!!! After reading this article, one wonders how are Westerners programmed to think? I was an engineering student in the state of Virginia, and American student would ask me, 'So,  how many camels do your parents own?' Naturally, I had great expectation from an academic institution ! Now, what to do?   This is a great country,  I believe.  Our destiny is in our hands.  If we become too comfortable we stand to lose generations of young Assyrians to Coca-Cola, Rock and Roll, not to forget Shish O’ Hasht.  A family member once said: 'We are here for  Macy's...and…Life style !   No body kicked us out of Iran.
What is wrong with that??'   I hope, some day, to prove her wrong!!"

Albert Issaco
Sutter Creek, California

"We celebrate Easter every year at this time. It honors the Resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Jesus didn't command us to celebrate His Resurrection once a year. If He is risen it means He is alive and the celebration must be every day in our hearts, He is here to stay not to visit!

On Easter, we think we are celebrating His Resurrection but actually we are pleasing ourselves not Him. It is a glorious and holy time for Christians and for those who want to recommit their lives to Him.

Colored eggs, the Easter bunny, new clothes, sweets, eating, drinking and visiting are not things that make our Lord happy and will not please Him. I am afraid when we stand at His Throne and say to Him Lord, Lord.....He will tell us depart from me, I never knew you (related passage Matthew 7:22).' Instead, we must obey His commandments. At this holy time let's open our hearts to help the starving children that are all around the world. Their swollen bellies and sad faces don't tell us any thing? We can't even stay hungry for one day, what about these little ones that are so tiny and ready to break waiting for us to feed them and give them life and bring a smile to their faces. Jesus said  'I tell you the truth, what ever you did for one of the least of these you did it for me (related passages Matthew 25:35-46).'

If we let children die in their hunger while being aware of their situation and continue to spend money for our own pleasure, this is the greatest crime. Feeding the hungry is a good step to celebrate the REAL EASTER and getting closer to our Savior and have the blessings of God in our lives...Enjoy the real Easter. God bless you all.

Doris Babassi
San Jose, California

"We  know that our Assyrian People are living in four corner of the earth. In the last thirty years, Assyrian have immigrated to every  country that welcomed them.  The vast majority of our people left  their country by leaving behind  their homes, their security, and their loved one. They migrated to countries of  different languages, history, culture, and so on.  All of us, as new immigrants in our adopted countries, have prospered financially much better than when we were in our native countries. Our prosperity was due to the freedom that was giving to us.  We became members or residence in the adopted countries. We are given the freedom to practice our faith and beliefs. We are given the opportunity to receive higher  education and the same opportunity is extended to our children too.  We are given the chance to improve  our lives and the lives of our families. The authorities and the constitutions of the new adopted countries are giving us equal rights by which we all are protected, so we may improve our family lives and enhance and strengthen our ties with each other as Assyrian People. Our new country gave us the rights to  exercise our freedom as the citizen of the country.  Each of us have the opportunity to rise to our highest  potentials as individuals or as a community or as a nationality.  We have the same rights as the natives of the country to reach our potentials and improve our social and political needs.  Here we have the opportunity  and the rights to hold high positions in the political arena, in the Armed Forces, in the government , in the financial or the corporate institutions and so on.  We have no more excuses to say we 'cannot do or become this or that because we have been discriminate against, or that we have not been given the opportunity to reach our potentials.'  We cannot say anymore that we have been hated because we are the minority of the country, or we have been insulted and persecuted because of our faith.  In America, Australia & Europe, our people cannot blame anyone or any government for their failure as a nation.

Here we have the opportunity to become a strong force, a great nation with great potentials, but we are not taking advantage of our freedom and of our opportunities to become a nation once more. Truly,  majority of our people are satisfied with their new ways of life. As a matter of fact, majority of our people are very successful and richer than the day they left their homeland.  So , individually we are living a
good and comfortable life too.  But, collectively we became very poor and strangers toward each others.  Due to the influence of the new culture and the way of life, our people mixed and commingled and adopted a new style of life with different standards of ethics than of our own. The influence of
the new cultures affected our people, especially our children . We all , the old and the young are caught in this new cultural changes.  Assyrians around the world, especially those of us that are residing in the countries of the western culture, have lost the Assyrian ways of life, most of all we have been affected by cultural changes and for its worst .

Our children are caught between both cultures . At home, we demand of them to behave, act and respect our traditions and the ways of life and to become good Assyrian.  Outside home, the society and the peer pressure of every day life at school and at playgrounds are hurting our children and are damaging
their emotions.  Our children are caught in both cultures; this is too much for them. It is hard to grow up  healthy and happy in these kinds of environments. Our children want to be accepted by their parents because they love them.  They like to be accepted by their peers so they don't look down on them.  Our
children have the most difficult task in the new land.  The majority of our children are not very happy and the majority of them have been affected and have been injured, emotionally and they have been scarred for life.  I am sure that their children or our children's children or the second generations
of Assyrians will have much easier time and better life to get adjusted in their homeland. This problem is not only with the Assyrian families or the Assyrian children.  It is a widespread problem throughout the country. Every immigrant from the eastern cultures, whether  Assyrian, Hindus, Arab, Jew, Chinese, Japanese and so on, has been affected by this cultural re-evaluation.  We are all in the same boat.

If we look at our life in these countries we see that almost every one of us have gained something, but  also, every one of us have lost something too which it is the most important element of our existing as Assyrian People.  The hurt and the pain of the past  kept us together as one people that shares a common language, culture, history and heritage.  Until this century  we kept our  'Assyrian'  name with pride, we kept it proudly against all the odds and against the hardship and the persecution that was shamefully brought upon us.  Now that we are in these free countries and that we are having better lives and that our children are receiving better education and reaching their highest of their potentials, unfortunately, we are losing our children, our heritage, our culture, our language faster than ever before. If we continue living the way we are and if we ignore our youth and if we do not recognize the problems and act accordingly,  to improve the relationship between our people ahead of time, soon and within fifty years or less we
will cease to exist in the western world as so called Assyrians.

It is the duty of every Assyrian to preserve our culture, language and our name.  It is our duty and our responsibility to keep our name to last for ever and ever.   There are many ways and many approaches  we may take to bring our youth and our people closer to one another.  Assyrian Television and
Assyrian Radio are very good instruments to listen too .  But, the signal for TV and Radio does not reach our people in all four corners of the earth.  Also both instruments are just listening tools. That is why we need other ways of communication with each others.  Since our people are in four corners of
the earth, we must help them reach each other and help them by communicating with each other on a daily basses.  At the present time the most available technology is the way of computers and the Internet. We must encourage our people old and young to get involved with the new technology, so they too may
get closer to each others.  By writing to each other and by exchanging ideas and point of views with other Assyrian across the world we will unite our people and it will  give them the sense of being one family and one nation.

Communication by the world web will brake all the barriers of distance of land, sea or time. On the other hand, the Internet will able us to help each other and it will able us to communicate with our fellow Assyrian around the world.   In bringing our people closer to each other and by having them to write to one other we will be keeping our people alive. We are hoping by communicate and by exchange ideas and points of views with one another, it will lead us to develop friendship and in some instances
marriages too. By communicating with each other across the world, our people can lobby politically against any mishap or any hardship toward our people , regardless of their locations.  Imagine if we all take advantage of this century's technology and if all Assyrians around the world use it to their advantage, it will be a great tools to voice our concerns to any of our representatives and at any time in any place of the world.  Within seconds our concerns and our collective demands can be heard. Internet is a powerful
tool to use. We must encourage our people to take advantage of this technology so we may be heard as  one people and as a nation too.

I would like to suggest the following to the Zenda’s Staff  :

Create a new weekly section at your magazine and on your web site . Make it available for all Zenda readers .  The new section to be specifically devoted for our young boys and girls and for any Assyrian  that is seeking friendship or that is looking for love and romance and maybe a marital relationship.   What if Zenda would encourage our youth to post their names, ages, hobbies, background or any of other  information that will help them select a friend or a mate for life.  It will not hurt to encourage our youth  to have their photo published so they may know and meet each other  in
the future.

It will be good to have our youth around the world to get to know each others and to be in touch  by exchanging ideas and point of views.  By having our people involved with the Internet  it will give them the chance to introduce our people to other nations of the world, especially in those that they think Assyrian people have vanished from the face of the earth and that they don't exists any more.  May I suggest a name for these pages: 'Friendship and Romance Connections'.  Also, you may put the information by  categories of their ages, genders, romance, friendship and so on. I think it will do our people some good.  By adding this to your web site, it will increase your membership and your viewers too.  I hope that you will consider my suggestion seriously and I hope that you will act accordingly. Thank you and God Bless you all."

Martin David




On June 2, 1998, the voters of the largest city in Northern California -- San Jose -- will chose their next leader, the Mayor of San Jose.

The City of San Jose has a population of nearly 1 million residents and is considered the "capitol" of Silicon Valley, the region of the United States responsible for many of the technological innovations of the 20th century, including the Internet.

This election marks the first time in the history of the local Assyrian-American community where a candidate for this prestigious position, Mr. Ron Gonzales, has requested help from the Assyrian Community.

Mr. Gonzales' supporters include the CEOs of Hewlett-Packard Company, Cisco Systems, Adobe, and many other hi-tech business leaders.

U.S. Congresswomen Anna Eshoo has also endorsed Mr. Gonzales' candidacy for mayor.

To date, the Assyrian-American community has raised over $5,000 to support Mr. Gonzales.  This tremendous level of support is directly a result of Mr. Gonzales' efforts, over the last 8 years, to help local Assyrians.

Members of the local Assyrian-American community plan on hosting a barbecue fundraiser for Ron Gonzales:

Date:  May 2, 1998
Time:  11 a.m. to 3 p.m.
Location: AAA Beta (located on 20000 Almaden Road in San Jose)
Purpose: Personally meet Mr. Gonzales, a candidate for Mayor in the City of
San Jose, register to vote, and obtain useful information about the City of
San Jose and its services.
Contribution: $20 per person (includes a kabob sandwich & drink)

If any person is interested in helping the Assyrians for Ron Gonzales Committee or purchasing a barbecue ticket, please call Ashurbel Pirayou  at (408) 297-3795 (email: pirayoulaw@earthlink.com).

Office of Ron Gonzales
San Jose, California



Get your free copy of the newly published color magazine:

The Assyrian Martyr Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII
A Quarterly, Assyrian cultural magazine.
Dedicated in memory of the Assyrian Martyr, Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII

Topics include:

* Who was behind the assassination of Mar Eshai Shimun?
* The life and death of the Assyrian Martyr, Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII
* & the never--before-seen historic pictures of Mar Eshai Shimun

To receive your free copy (copies), please send your request by e-mail to: ashour@ican.net
and indicate your name, address, and number of free copies requested.

Magazine Editors
Ontario, Canada



(ZNAP:  San Francisco)  On 26 March the Ninth Circuit U.S. court of Appeals upheld $1.5 million in damages against Iraq for allegedly plotting to assassinate Sargon Dadesho of Bet-Nahrain Inc and the chairman of the Assyrian National Congress.  Dadesho also publishes the Bet-Nahrian Magazine and operates an Assyrian TV station from Modesto/Ceres area in California.

Dadesho's case resulted in the expulsion of an Iraqi diplomat from the country's United Nations mission in New York, less than a year before the 1991 Gulf War, and a five-year prison sentence for the would-be hitman, Andre Khoshaba.  Daniel Trump, a lawyer for Iraq, declined comment on the ruling.  Trump had said that neither Iraq nor any of its officials had authorized the murder plot.  He argued that Iraq should not be held to normal legal deadlines for contesting the case because of political and economic sanctions imposed by the United States and the U.N.  Dadesho filed suit in 1992 and was awarded $1.5 million by U.S. District Judge Robert Coyle in 1995 for intentional infliction of emotional distress after Iraq failed
to respond.

The would-be assassin was another Assyrian living in Modesto.  Andre Khoshaba worked for Iraq's United Nations mission as a driver and handyman.  He pleaded guilty in 1991 to having traveled to New York in February 1990 to meet with an Iraqi government agent to discuss the murder.


(ZNSO:  Sydney) On 4 January His Holiness Mor Ignatius Zakka I, Patriarch of the Syrian Orthodox Church, consecrated the Mor Yacoub Burd`ono Church in the city of Melbourne, Australia.  Mor Zakka was accompanied by the Patriarch Vicar, H.E. Archbishop Mor Severius Isaac Saka and the Patriarchal Secretaries, Very Rev. Raban Kuriakose and Very Rev. Raban Elia Bahi. Receptions were held in honor of His Holiness at the airport and later at Yacoub Burd`ono Church. Following the consecration, the Patriarch celebrated the Holy Qurbono and unveiled a plaque at the entrance of the Church that records the memorable occasion.  The Australian television news channel SBS broadcasted an interview with His Holiness on the World News. On 16 January some 250 members of the Syrian Orthodox community  in Sydney held a reception in honor of Mo Zakka.  On the following day during a Mass held at St. Ephraim's Church in Sydney, Rev. Fr. Zeki Zeitoun was decorated with the Holy Cross, and several of the Church's deacons of various orders were ordained. On Sunday 18 January His Holiness consecrated the St. Thomas Church, a small parish of 12 families, ministered by Rev. Fr. Abdulahad Zeitoun in Wollongong, NSW.



April 24



St. Mary's Assyrian Chaldean Catholic Church

Entertainers:  Edmond & Assyria DJ's Emil & Jimmy 
Lou's Village  
1465 West San Carlos 
San Jose 
Admission:  $20 in advance/$25 at the door 
To purchase tickets: 
   Nancy Kaldani       408-448-2806 
   Hannibal Menashy  408-363-6950 
   Khalid Elias            408-972-544 
   Ramil Esho            510-713-0980 
No Children under 12 allowed

May 1

                                             BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 

Lecture:  "Assyrian Americans at the Threshold of the 21st Century" 
Speaker:  Dr. Aryan Ishaya 
Alumni House Lounge, UC-Berkeley 
7:30 PM 
Refreshments Provided 
Sponsored by the Assyrian Foundation of America & University of California at Berkeley's Center for Middle Eastern Studies

May 22


"An Assyrian Evening" 
A Cultural Exchange Event Organized by German Cultural Organizations/Radio&TV 

  • Lectures & Interviews with Several University Professors , Students, & Representatives of Assyrian Organizations from Hamburg, Wiesbaden, Paderborn, Berlin, and & other German Cities are Expected to Attend 
  • Assrian Dance Groups from Wiesbaden & Hamburg
  • Appearance on Hamburger Fruehstueckfernseher Television Program
May 22-25


Assyrian State Convention of California 
Sponsored by the Assyrian United Organizations of California 
Host:  Assyrian American Civic Club of California

May 23


The Fourth Assyrian Community Networking Conference 
Organized by:  Nineveh On Line 
1:00 PM 
DoubleTree Hotel (Formerly Red Lion Inn) 
Center Plaza, Modesto

July 4


Assyrian Olympic Games 







 tar/gam/ta   ("g" as in GREAT)
 Targamta d'khda ktava = Trans. of a book
 Pooshaqa d'aha memla = Interp. of this speech


BC (1700)

The ancient Assyrians treat pain using massage therapy and herbs as garlic, tamarisk, hellebore, mandrake, cypress, resins and gums.

The Historical Development of Massage

AD (661-680)

During the Patriarchate of Mar Gewargis I, the Ummayad Caliph Muawiyyah demanded gold from the Patriarch. The Patriarch refused and was imprisoned. The Christians were persecuted and their churches were destroyed.

"From The Rise of Islam to The Massacres of Badr Khan Beg"




Introductory Classical Assyrian

alphabet and the vowel system, basic literacy skills & vocabulary  

Saad Sadi 
APR 4 JUN 27  


3-5 PM 

North Park Univ Carlson Tower 
Room C44

Introductory Modern Assyrian I

alphabet and the vowel system, basic literacy skills & vocabulary 

Zaia Kanoon
APR 9 JUN 25 


7-9 PM 

North Park Univ 
Room B-3

Introductory Modern Assyrian II

reading & writing,  & elementary grammar.  

Zaia Kanoon
APR 4 JUN 27 


3-5 PM 

North Park Univ 
Carlson Tower 
Room C42




"The approach to the Garden sloped like a hillside and the several parts of the structure rose from one another tier on tier... On all this, the earth had been piled... and was thickly planted with trees of every kind that, by their great size and other charm, gave pleasure to the beholder... The water machines [raised] the water in great abundance from the river, although no one outside could see it."

Diodorus Siculus

"The Garden is quadrangular, and each side is four plethra long. It consists of arched vaults which are located on checkered cube-like foundations.. The ascent of the uppermost terrace-roofs is made by a stairway..."


"The Hanging Garden has plants cultivated above ground level, and the roots of the trees are embedded in an upper terrace rather than in the earth. The whole mass is supported on stone columns... Streams of water emerging from elevated sources flow down sloping channels... These waters irrigate the whole garden saturating the roots of plants and keeping the whole area moist. Hence the grass is permanently green and the leaves of trees grow firmly attached to supple branches... This is a work of art of royal luxury and its most striking feature is that the labor of cultivation is suspended above the heads of the spectators".

Philo of Byzantium


30th Anniversary

April 10, 1968:  The first Assyrian Universal Alliance Congress takes place in Pau, France.

To our readers:  Be sure to look for our special issue in April on the 30th anniversary of the AUA meeting in Pau.



Over 7000 Assyrians queued along the King Sargon Boulevard, a section of the Western Boulevard in Chicago, to cheer for the tens of floats bearing the names of the local Assyrian organizations, churches, businesses, and would-be elected officials.  This was also a warm opportunity for the campaign managers of the Chicagoland politicians to raise awareness for their future city and state officials.  The most appealing part of the parade were the hundreds of the Assyrian children standing atop the floats, waving the multi-color Assyrian flags and shouting "I am Assyrian and Assyria Shall Never Die."   This year the number of floats had slightly dwindled, however, the number of spectators had increased many folds.  "Havi baseema myaqra El Nino (Thanks to Mr. El Nino)" commented a smiling father of two while waving the Assyrian flag.  This year's weather in Chicago has been unusually warm and cooperative with the organizers of the largest Kha b'Neesan parade outside of Bet-Nahrain.



  Northeastern Illinois University





United Arab Emirates

We asked for one more and we got FIVE.  ZENDA welcomes our 30th through 34th subscriber-countries from Asia.

Dear Reader:  Do you know of an Assyrian friend or relative residing in Japan?  If so please share your information with us who in turn are assisting a future Assyrian resident of the Rising Sun islands in the Pacific.


This Week's Contributors:
Adrin Takhsh Berlin, Germany Calendar of Events
Rachelle Badal San Jose, California News Digest
Touma Issa Australia [SOCNews] News Digest

Thank You For Referring ZENDA to a Friend:
Odet Toma San Jose, California


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