Volume V Issue 21
Tamuz 26, 6749 July 26, 1999
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|The Lighthouse||The Assyrian Dilemma in America|
|Good Morning Bet-Nahrain||Vatican Comments on Pope's Travel to Bet-Nahrain|
|News Digest||An Apology After 900 Years|
|Surfs Up||"Each of the 10 songs takes me back"|
|Surfers Corner||To Be or Not To Be Assyrian? That is the Question!
The Gospel According to St. Matthew on Audio-cassette
|Message in the Bottle||Augean Minashi|
|Assyrian Surfing Posts||Architecture, Symbolism... on the First Chinese Church
Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies (New Web Site)
|Pump up the Volume||Media & Newspaper|
|Back to the Future||In Search of Metals & the Weakened U.S. Presidency|
|Literatus||The Long March of 1918|
|This Week in History||The Great Suffering|
|Calendar of Events||Assyrian Martyrs Day in August|
All blue links throughout this issue are hyperlinks to other sections on this page or featured websites.
An Early Sumerian Medical Text
The Sumerians of Southern Bet-Nahrain in 3000 B.C. practiced mathematics, astronomy and medicine- independently of the Egyptians. Based on clay tablets dated to 2200 BCE, the Sumerians used drugs to treat diseases. The Assyro-Babylonian civilization, which superseded the Sumerian before 2000 BCE, absorbed much of the technology and culture of that civilization.
THE ASSYRIAN DILEMMA IN AMERICA
I was quite amazed reading the Volume V, Issue 15 edition of Zenda on-line magazine published on 6/7/1999. In that issue we were informed that a certain agency of the United States government, namely the Census Bureau, has decided to henceforth use the term "Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac" to categorize our people in this country. Amazingly in that same issue, the head of the same government, President Bill Clinton, in a letter informing Congress of the latest developments in Iraq, refers to our people in North Iraq by the name ASSYRIAN, without any slashes.
This raises an interesting question. Why is it that in our homeland when our people are free to express themselves, they resoundingly identify themselves with the name ASSYRIAN? Why is it that only in America our name gets slashed?
The answer is quite simple. In our homeland we have ASSYRIAN NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. These national organizations have worked hard to represent the Assyrian people from all denominations and walks of life. Let's look at our homeland in more detail. In Iran we have ASSYRIAN Motvas - popularly elected assemblies - in cities with sizable Assyrian populations and a popularly elected ASSYRIAN Representative in the Iranian Parliament. In Iraq we have the ASSYRIAN Democratic Movement. After the Allies took upon themselves to protect North Iraq, the Assyrian people in that region - the majority of whom belong to the Chaldean Church - overwhelmingly voted for the candidates nominated by the ASSYRIAN Democratic Movement during the parliamentary elections. Similarly in Syria we have the ASSYRIAN Democratic Organization. In Syria the Assyrian people, the majority of whom belong to the Syrian Orthodox Church, overwhelmingly voted for the candidate nominated by the ASSYRIAN Democratic Organization during Syria's parliamentary elections.
All of the above organizations operate under hostile environments and economically depressed conditions, yet because they draw their strength and legitimacy from the Assyrian people - irrespective of their religious affiliation - they have scored spectacular gains for our people. The Assyrian Motva in Tehran operates a large Assyrian school where Assyrian students attend from 1st all the way to the 12th grade. The Assyrian Democratic Movement is leading a revolution in reviving the Assyrian language: it operates schools in North Iraq where the entire curriculum is taught in the Assyrian language. And the Assyrian Democratic Organization - the first cross denominational Assyrian national and political organization - has spearheaded Assyrian unity, revitalized the Western Assyrian national music, and has gained the right to teach our language as part of the regular school curriculum in Europe.
Now let's take a look at our organizations in this country. Regrettably, when it comes to Assyrian organization in America "the Emperor has no clothes." In contrast to our homeland, in place of inclusive Assyrian national organizations, here we have exclusive Assyrian entertainment clubs. Our "national" organization in the US, the Assyrian American National Federation (AANF) instead of inclusively representing all sectors of the Assyrian people in America, exclusively represents these thirty odd Assyrian entertainment clubs whose membership is at most 5% of the Assyrian population in this country. This undemocratic, unrepresentative, and backward structure of the AANF has made a mockery of the Assyrian people in this country. Alienated and repulsed by this appalling backwardness, the vast majority of the Assyrians in America are so disgusted that they simply do not care. Because of this apathy, the great collective potential of the Assyrian people in this country has not been realized.
Now imagine if the AANF were a democratic, pluralistic, progressive, popularly elected Assyrian national organization representing over 200,000 Assyrians from all denominations and walks of life in America. How would the AANF look like? Such an organization, with seventy years in continuous existence (much longer than any of our national organizations in our homeland) representing tens of thousands of working Assyrians who collectively earn over a billion dollars annually, and operating in a free country under favorable economic conditions, would be quite a mighty organization indeed. It would have a multi-million dollar operating budget, sprawling headquarters both in Chicago and Detroit, offices in every city with a sizable Assyrian population, and an army of full-time lobbyists in Washington. It would operate a dozen Assyrian schools across America and one or perhaps two Assyrian universities. Every year it would raise millions of dollars from the Assyrian people in this country and would have investments, holdings, and assets worth tens of millions of dollars both here and in our homeland.
I ask, if the above were a true portrait of the AANF, would we have had to deal with this nonsense about slashing our national name? It is precisely due to the lack of a strong Assyrian National organization representing our people from all denominations and walks of life in America that this non-issue has gained undue importance.
At the dawn of the new millennium, we Assyrians better take a good look at our organizations in America. Unless we make a real attempt to create a representative national organization for ALL Assyrians in this country, we will keep on witnessing more of this buffoonery which will continue to make a mockery of our nation.
GOOD MORNING BET-NAHRAIN
VATICAN COMMENTS ON POPE'S TRAVEL TO BET-NAHRAIN
(ZNZT: Vatican) As part of the Jubilee celebrations, next year John Paul II would very much like to meet with Jews and Moslems in the ancient Ur of the Chaldeans, homeland of Abraham, Father in Faith of the three monotheist religions. The Pope's wish was confirmed by Cardinal Francis Arinze, President of the Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialogue. During an interview with "Famiglia Cristiana" magazine, the Cardinal said: "I pray that the Pope will be able to realize his wish."
Not only does the Cardinal pray, but he is also working for this wish to come true. In concert with the Secretariat of State, the Pontifical Council he heads is studying ways to make the Holy Father's pilgrimage possible. The Cardinal chose not to expand on his activities -- an understandable reservation given the delicate diplomatic aspects of the matter. Cardinal Arinze preferred to emphasize the dialogue among the different religious confessions, scheduled to meet at the Vatican from October 24-28. The Cardinal felt that much progress has been made over the last 30 years in relations with Islam. "I recall the joint declarations condemning grave acts of violence, such as the attack on New York's World Trade Center and the series of deaths in Algeria; I note the academic exchange between the Pontifical Gregorian University and the University of Ankara in Turkey." Obviously, there are difficulties. "I prefer to speak of challenges, however, as I hope that positive outlets will be found." It is hard for the Islamic world to accept the principle of religious liberty as understood in the West. "Last January the Pope reminded the ambassadors to the Holy See that there is a country where possession of the Bible is a crime punishable by law," recalled the Cardinal. "John Paul II did not name Saudi Arabia, but in my country there is a proverb that says: 'If someone looks good in a hat, let him wear it.' " Each State must examine its conduct.
"In some Moslem countries, Catholics are not allowed to have a church, but there is a mosque in Rome. Religious liberty is an inalienable right," stated Cardinal Arinze.
Catholics must also examine their conscience, however. "It was in the year 1650 that the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples gave missionaries in the Far East specific instructions to respect all good customs that were not incompatible with the Gospel. It insisted on spreading the Gospel, not the cultures of Italy, Spain or France." But, the Cardinal concluded, "not all the missionaries and theologians paid sufficient attention to this principle."
We Stand Corrected! The Iraq Foundation has informed RFE/RL newswire that it is not investigating anti-Assyrian actions as reported in last week's ZENDA. The Foundation, according to RFE/RL report "has neither the physical capacity nor the authority to investigate these occurrences."
AN APOLOGY AFTER 900 YEARS
(ZNAP: Jerusalem) To most, the Crusades are ancient history. Not to Prince Albrecht zu Castell-Castell, a descendant of one of the Christian knights who nearly a millennium ago conquered Jerusalem and massacred Muslims and Jews in the name of God.
On Thursday, the German aristocrat with white hair and ruddy cheeks finally got a chance to apologize to descendants of the Muslim warrior Saladin for his ancestor's crimes, which he said have burdened his conscience for years.
Castell-Castell was one of dozens of Western Christians who delivered apologies to Israel's chief rabbi, the top Muslim cleric and anyone in the streets of Jerusalem who would listen.
Thursday marked the 900th anniversary of the Crusaders' conquest of Jerusalem on July 15, 1099.
In the run-up to the date, about 500 Christians from Europe, Australia and the United States joined a so-called Reconciliation Walk, setting out three years ago from Cologne, Germany, where the first Crusade was launched in 1096, and tracing the path of the Crusaders to the Holy Land.
In Jerusalem, the Christians held hands as they sang and prayed Thursday outside the walls of the Old City. Wandering through the cobblestone streets, they visited shops and handed out pamphlets with apologies in Hebrew and Arabic.
Afterwards, the group separated; some met with Israel's chief rabbi, Meir Israel Lau, at the Great Synagogue, and others with the top Muslim cleric in the city, Mufti Ikrema Sabri.
"We are deeply sorry for the atrocities committed by our forefathers,'' read the framed message handed to both. "Where our forefathers were driven by hatred and prejudice, we wish to express love and solidarity.''
During the Crusades, which lasted from the 11th through the 13th century, tens of thousands of Muslims and Jews were killed. The Roman Catholic Crusaders also wrested control of Christian holy sites from their Eastern Orthodox stewards.
Lau, a survivor of the Nazi Holocaust, said he was not sure he had the mandate to accept the apology, but welcomed it nonetheless. "Better late than never,'' he said.
Among the marchers was John Strobole, 74, a retired U.S. Air Force pilot from Chico, Calif. ``I grew up believing that the Crusades were a fine thing, and I was shocked when I learned of the massacres they carried out among the Muslims, the Jews and Eastern Orthodox Christians,'' he said.
At the mufti's, Muslim officials introduced the visitors to Amin Maraka and Mousa Sider, descendants of the Muslim conqueror Saladin, who retook Jerusalem in 1187.
Castell-Castell's interest was piqued. He began speaking to the two elderly Palestinian men in German, with his granddaughter translating into English and a Palestinian woman translating from English into Arabic.
The prince, wearing a white Reconciliation Walk T-shirt, introduced himself as the descendant of Count Ludwig who came to the Holy Land in 1228. Then, with his hand on his heart, he apologized. ``I have borne the burden of my ancestors,'' he said.
The descendants of Saladin accepted, and quickly brought up the Palestinians' modern struggle for independence. Asking the prince to take their message back to Europe, they said: "We must be together always, not trying to crush others.''
"While we as Assyrians love and respect our churches, mainly for the mighty Lord Jesus Christ, it is very important to talk about our needs even though it is in conflict with the decisions made by individuals who are running the business of our churches, such individuals are not necessary religious leaders, but are in the church committees.
Therefore I would like to express my thoughts that our Assyrian people in Turlock/California, as an example only, are in need of Assyrian School for many Assyrian children, in lieu of spending so much money to construct a church building of Mar Addai. Sunday school proven over many years inadequate to gain and achieve major results for Assyrians. To keep our future Assyrians "Assyrians", we need full time Assyrian schools, this sentence is self explanatory.
To solve the size problem of the current Mar Addai in Turlock which appears twice a year only, temporary by using the buildings of Mar Giwarges in the City of Ceres which is 10 minutes from Turlock, and use Mar Zaia in the City of Modesto which is 20 minutes from Turlock. Lets the community sacrifice the new one church building out of the eight Assyrian churches currently available in the Stanislaus County for the sake of the Only Assyrian School in the entire west !! It is not too late, I think the new church building is in the early stage of planning, if there is a plan set professionally for that.
Assyrian people are not on a path of losing the Christianity, but our children are heading toward complete lose of the Assyrianity, at this point will remind the individuals who believe in "church and nation" and see how much attention and care are paying for our nation.
It got to be suggested that our respected religious leaders conduct meetings by calling our educated Assyrians of college degree holders to analyze this matter and seek volunteers to form a committee with full authority in that regard. The only reason for that, with due respect to all currently involved, Assyrian professionals have much closer look to better planning due to their field of practice and profession."
Every now and then, when we all think we have had enough from this insane World, Ashur helps us refocus on our sense of identity as he teaches us the meaning of the word Love through his beautiful lyrics and tunes. Ashur is truly the God of all Assyrian Singers, the way he expresses his lyrics and music is simply unmatched. Just like his CD's title, I wish that he were Immortal, so that our children's children can enjoy his melodies. May our almighty God bless you Ashur, on all your efforts my dear friend, and please keep your compositions coming."
Sargon B. Yalda
Isaiah 19: 23-25 (King James Version)
"In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land: Whom the LORD of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance."
I feel the use of the "talkingman.gif" graphic in the "Let Your Voice Be Heard" section is improper. In fact, the use of any animated graphics would detract from the serious and professional nature of the material found in Zenda. Please consider removing the animation.
We all enjoy the weekly contributions and stories. In fact, my father-in-law becomes upset if I am late in delivering his copy. Keep up this great service."
Thomas A. Dunlap
Gone, bye-bye, so long Mr. Talking-Head! No more over-sized animations either. How is that for customer satisfaction? As always, ZENDA values its readers' suggestions on the "look and feel" of our magazine. Actually we went two steps further and changed the title and the functionality of this section also. It is now called SPEAK UP! and it features an online ZENDA Survey form. Each week ZENDA will ask a different question pertaining to a topic discussed in the current issue and our readers will have ample opportunity to vote on the red-hot subjects we bring to their inquiring minds. Thanks to our friends and Mr. Sargon Aprim at Atour.com, ZENDA readers can express themselves online... Signor Talking-Head, buono arrivederci!
TO BE OR NOT TO BE ASSYRIAN? THAT IS THE QUESTION!
Though the title may be provoking, I do have the hope that the reader will indulge me his patience to explain my opinion and present my case, which is a case for existence not for borders. For it is sad, even painful, to isolate an individual from his right to partake in a decision involving his own future. But our suffering as Iraqi citizens is caused by this isolation. These oppressive ruling regimes have deprived us from our right to express our opinions in decisions relating to our self-determination and having to do with our lives as human beings that belong to the Iraqi people and to the Iraqi soil.
For if the confiscation of our right as individuals is an operation that is rejected and brings only destruction, then how do you regard confiscating of the right of a people who form a part of the Iraqi fabric? Notwithstanding, these are the oldest people that preserve our continuation with the history Iraq.
How can we observe the isolation of the Assyrian people away from the contribution to the future of Iraqi nation?
Is it not trespassing on our Assyrian people and their right in participation and to make known their demands and to know their fears in the formation of their future country?
Is it not maltreatment of the future of the nation of which we aspire to build and claim to be committed to and striving for? What is the meaning of the term "democracy", which is a foundational term from the dictionary of the Iraqi Opposition?
Some regard their own presence to be sufficient to the delicate formulation of our entire national future and that the sufficiency of their presence even makes the presence of others unnecessary and precluded. The tragic results of the Iraqi experience, that adopted and is committed to the same thing, is when the Iraqi people sold out to one person. We gave up any commentary! However, we are wondering only about the difference between the achieved Saddam experience and practice on one hand and what we can anticipate and expect on the other hand? Or are the Assyrians the lowly doorstep, of whom everyone may ignore and forget?
If we are to admit to the multi-national and multi-cultural nature of Iraq, as a sample of the reality and democracy which we claim to be inspired by, as a method to practice future politics, then those who lead the Iraqi opposition conferences [the last of which were the two conferences of London (April) and the conference of Washington (May) of 1999] must reconsider their positions. They must not insist on ostracizing the Assyrians (from their presence, their rights, and their participation) in the Iraqi national future.
Is it not the right of the Assyrians to doubt the intentions of the opposition leaderships? Haven't the Assyrians suffered, like all other citizens, from the dictatorship of Saddam and his henchmen? However, we declare that the suffering of the Assyrians predates our time for centuries and still continues until the present. Still, they have not found an uniting national voice to support them.
Is it not our right to ask, after being avoided and disregarded for so long, are we Iraqis or we not?
Is it the guilt of the Assyrians that they do not have a provincial party who buttresses them and provides them with some support? Or is it their guilt that they are fiercely loyal to their country, and have offered the first casualties in its history for the sake of keeping its borders from the greedy?
Or is it that the Assyrians in the sight of some are a people who have lost all types of human and patriotic senses! For they are content with any circumstance, whether they are invited to participate or not.
Do some believe that we are injected (strangers) into the Iraq in the same way that Hussari followers [footnote #] and all other racist people who have the agenda of the one color, one creed, and one tongue for all of Iraq [footnote # 2]?
Yes, we Assyrians are as Iraqi, not only feeling the pain but also the insult to our national dignity. What is the meaning of all of our sacrifices for our country? We are not in an age to accept patting on the back to heal our conscience. We are Iraqi citizens representing the third largest national sector and second largest religious sector.
Our participation is beyond necessary to build the future of our country, and to place our demands before the representatives of other national sectors, that we may be able to discuss our joint future. Is this not the wholesome and correct matter? Or is it the polarities of opposition who will walk out on us with an explanation to make us feel us better, saying, "May God forgive what has transpired, until the time of another conference." By this they perceive that they are pacifying us.
Clarifying notes from the author:  Hussari (Sate'a Al Hussari) is the spiritual father of Arabic nationalism in this century. He was a fascist Arab. He and his followers said that Assyrians are refugees injected into Iraq and they have nothing to do in Iraq, no rights, no future, etc.
 With the term "other racist people", I am referring to some Arab persons (politicians and parties) who believe in and introduce Iraq and Iraqi people to be of ONE nation with ONE language, that is Arabic. Hence, they are denying the ethnic, cultural, linguistic, etc. diversity of other non-Arabic components of Iraqi people, including (indeed in the first place) Assyrians. Certainly, they not only deny our identity but try to kill it. The prime sample of those is the Saddam regime.
Written in Arabic by Qasha Emanuel Youkhana
Courtesy of Azzaman Newspaper, July 17, 1999
English translation by Samuel A. Babisha
July 18, 1999
THE GOSPEL OF ST. MATTHEW ON AUDIOCASSETTE
In a modest effort to make the Holy Bible available to our Assyrian brothers and sisters that are eager to listen to the precious words of wisdom of our Lord Jesus Christ while driving or relaxing at home, or just don't have the proper schedule to attend church regularly as well as our brothers and sisters that are visually challenged. By the grace of the Lord, now the Gospel of Matthew is available on audiocassette, from chapter 1:1 to chapter 15:11 in modern Assyrian (Lishana Swadaya).
Free you have received, free you will give. Ask you shall be given. The cassette is yours for the asking. Your prayers are indeed crucial for this modest step by a meek laborer in the harvest of the Lord to be blessed and protected by the Almighty. Ask the Lord to forgive our sins and strengthen us to be able to achieve the spiritual goals that he entrusted us to do and for his will to be done on earth as it is done in heaven. May the peace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you always.
Shamasha John Kaninya
MESSAGE IN THE BOTTLE
My name is Augean Minashi . I was born in 1978 and studying Electronics Engineering. I live with my parents and my sister in Tehran. I like Computer very much, music, basketball, ...
Personal Website: CLICK HERE
Server (6667) : eu.xnet.org (6667)
Assyria Web Chat
Suryoyo Online Forum
If a community with 500 or more Assyrian families decides to build a school for grades pre-school through 6 or 12, approved and accredited by the local and regional school board:
CLICK HERE TO VOTE
Architecture, Symbolism and Ideograms on the First Chinese Church
Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies (New Web Site)
PUMP UP THE VOLUME
BACK TO THE FUTURE
According to the 10,000 Assyrian tablets found in central Turkey dating from the beginning of the second millennium, where the Hittites resided at Kanesh (present-day Kultepe), the expansion of the Assyrians was due in part to extensive trading. Sargon of Akkad and Shamshi-Adad I's expansions may have indeed been prompted by the search for metal and the control of the routes of access to metal.
Allen Drury publishes his novel "Come Nineveh, Come Tyre" set in America in the near future. The United States is led by a weak President, ambitious Senators, and the terrifying possibility of a "New Day", when the politics of the day make the impossible a reality.
THIS WEEK IN HISTORY
July 29, 1918: The largest exodus of Assyrian in this century begins in Urmia, Iran (see LITERATUS).
THE LONG MARCH OF 1918
In Persia the nation was safe for the moment, though their position was anomalous by any system of international law. Persia was a field of battle, over which all parties tramped at will, but was in theory neutral. The Russian authorities were the practical administrators of the land, and they received the Assyrians, recognized them as allied, armed them, and gave them a regular status in the war as they were carrying it on. Many non-combatants were also allowed to find a refuge in the Caucasus. Mar Shimun [Benyamin] received a decoration of a high order from the Tsar, and there seemed to be a real prospect for deliverance for the nation, when the war should end in the victory of the Entente.
Touch was established with the British, who were now in possession of Baghdad, and by their advice an alliance was made with the Armenians, and also with a Kurdish chief of the name of Simko, so as to protect that part of Persia from any Turkish attack, and to form part of the join advance, then projected, by Russians and British in Mesopotamia.
The plan was quite feasible, but before it had been put into action the keystone was knocked out of the arch by the collapse of Russia [December 1917], and the whole edifice went down in ruin. Simko the Kurd, who had only joined in the scheme because it seemed to him that he would make his own profit out of it, instantly proceeded to make his own terms with the Turks and the Persians. To gratify them, if not at the direct suggestion of some of the officials of one of the two powers, he decoyed the Assyrian Patriarch to a friendly conference, and murdered him with every aggravation of treachery [16 March 1918].
The nation suddenly found themselves at once deprived of their chief and of their allies, and left helpless and isolated in the midst of their enemies... Another leader came to the front, one Petros of Baz (Agha Potros), a man of picturesque career but of real capacity for irregular warfare, and the nation was able to go on defending itself for the best part of a year. Attacks made by Persian, Turk, and Kurd were beaten off one after the other, and it was only when the supply of ammunition- which they had no means of renewing- began to fail them, that the mountaineers felt any cause for anxiety...
The defenses of Urmi were carried, and the whole people, instead of maintaining their position as an allied outpost in the North, suddenly poured southwards, resolved to throw themselves on British protection. It was a "trek" of from seventy to eighty thousand people, without any form of discipline or organization, over some five hundred miles of hostile country. Their enemies, tribal and military, were on their track, prepared to show no mercy either to man or woman...
It is believed that half of those who started either perished on the way of fell into the hands of their enemies-- and the lot of those who died was the lighter of the two. Many, however, came through in safety, and were received by the British authorities, and lodged in one great refugee camp at Baqubah near Baghdad, a modern "City of Refuge."
The Assyrians & Their Neighbors, Rev. Wigram
Nakosha was established two years ago to appeal to a new Assyrian consciousness, to a new Assyrian idea, and fill a vacuum that had existed within our community for a long time. It was established with a view of placing Assyrian thinking, detached from alliance to extremes, but firmly placed on an even keel. To establish an equilibrium of thought, and presence, that is conducive to the upbringing of an Assyrian generation, proud of its history, culture, and heritage.
As individuals we venture through the journey of life seeking our identity, our stronghold; a platform we can solely call our own, whether it be a physical entity, or a nook of individual liberal thought. We journey through life; and so, through a soul-searching exercise, of some sort. As such, Nakosha too, has traveled through such a journey. It too has traveled a path fully laden with obstacles, and has risen all the better for it. I say this, because if has won the illusive prize of maturity. A maturity of content that has seen it include a wide array of current affairs, arts, history, and youth issues. Truly a medium of knowledge for Assyrian youth.
The magazine has a team of hard working and dedicated writers and publishing such a magazine on a monthly basis requires a lot of hard work, dedication and skills. It requires coordination, and many a late night meetings. It also requires editing, page layout, and computer skills.
Over the past two years Nakosha has grown from strength to strength, commanding respect, and high praise within our Assyrian community, especially from its loyal, and supportive readership. Nakosha's circulation has increased to, and in excess of 350 households, locally, interstate and overseas.
In conclusion, Nakosha hopes it is acting as a catalyst, or a go between that will see our people prosper into the future, with a foundation firmly placed in our past; leading the way as a proud, and united people.
Brian Ibrahim Berro
The staff of ZENDA congratulates the Assyrian Youth Group
of Victoria, Australia and Mr. Sennacherib Warda, Nakosha's Editor, on the occasion
of this magazine's second anniversary. To learn more about this fine Assyrian
periodical contact Nakosha at email@example.com.
ASSYRIAN MARTYRS' DAY
"From Hopelessness to Hope"
A commemoration of the August 7th Assyrian Martyr's Day
AUGUST 7TH SEMINAR
Sponsored by the Assyrian Youth Center of Ashour
ASSYRIAN-AMERICAN NATIONAL CONVENTION
Sponsored by the Assyrian-American National Federation
MEMORIAL OF ST. EPHREM
Divine Liturgy in the Eastern Assyrian Rite (Chaldean and Malabarese)
WELCOME TO ZENDA
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ZNAA (Assyrian Academic Society-Chicago)
ZNAD (Assyrian Democratic Organization)
ZNAF (Agence France-Presse)
ZNAH (Al-Ahram Newspaper, London)
ZNAL (Al-Hayat, London)
ZNAI (Assyrian International News Agency)
ZNAK (American Kurdish
ZNAM (Archeology Magazine)
ZNAP (Associated Press International)
ZNBN (Bet-Nahrain Inc/ KBSV-TV "AssyriaVision")
ZNCS (Conservative News Service)
ZNIF (Iraq Foundation)
ZNDA (Zenda: email@example.com)
ZNDN (Detroit News)
ZNIN (Iraqi National Congress)
ZNLT (Los Angeles Times)
ZNMN (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNMS (Mar Shimun Magazine-Canada)
ZNMV (Minerva- The Int. Rev. of Art & Archaeology)
ZNMW (Mideast Newswire)
ZNNQ (Nabu Quarterly)
ZNNV (Nineveh Magazine)
ZNNY: New York Times
ZNPR: Palestinian Review
ZNQA (Qala Atouraya- Moscow)
ZNRF (Radio Free Iraq)
ZNSH (Shotapouta Newsletter)
ZNSJ (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNSM (Shufimafi Lebanese News)
ZNSO (Syrian Orthodox News "SOCNews")
ZNTD (Turkish Daily News)
ZNTM (Time Magazine)
ZNUP (United Press International)
ZNUS (US News & World Report)
ZNCW: Catholic World News
ZNZT: (ZNZIT News Agency - Vatican)