THE VIRTUAL WORLD OF KING ASHURNASIRPAL'S PALACE
Courtesy of the New York Times (2 May); by Sam Lubell
(ZNDA: Los Angeles) Everyone knows that the Roman Colosseum is an architectural marvel. Built so that thousands of people could be ushered in and out in minutes, it is a testament to the genius of Roman engineering. Or is it?
By reconstructing the building with three-dimensional computer modeling
and then virtually ''walking through'' it, researchers have discovered
that in some sections the building may have had all the efficiency
of a railroad-style apartment on the Bowery. The model reveals dark,
narrow upper hallways that probably hemmed in spectators, slowing
their movement to a crawl.
''Now we have a tool that will really test assumptions,'' said Dean Abernathy, a doctoral student who helped reconstruct the Colosseum at the Cultural Virtual Reality Lab at the University of California at Los Angeles. ''It creates a lot of excitement in the field.''
The U.C.L.A. lab (www.cvrlab.org) creates models of architectural sites around the world. Since 1996 it has been working on a project called Rome Reborn, which seeks to rebuild much of the ancient metropolis.
Researchers at the lab recreated the Colosseum using a program called MultiGen Creator, which allows users to pan, zoom, walk or even fly through a simulation of a site. Graphics software like 3D Studio MAX and Lightscape, the same kind of programs used by digital movie studios, helps make the replicas particularly lifelike, with sharp colors and intricate stonework.
The Colosseum, a vast four-story oval arena, was built from around A.D. 70 to 80 under the rule of the Emperor Vespasian and then Titus. It once held as many as 50,000 spectators. Earthquakes and the ravages of time have destroyed much of the building, but an impressive amount, including most of its facade, still stands.
Mr. Abernathy confronted the issue of the third-level hallways when he was working on the reconstruction. His model drew on the findings of a team of experts on Roman architecture assembled by U.C.L.A. who had studied similar amphitheaters, drawings of the Colosseum and records of the building's construction and expansion. The team also examined what was left of the upper hallways, an area that had previously been all but closed to researchers.
Bernard Frischer, a classics professor at U.C.L.A. and director of the Cultural Virtual Reality Lab, said that researchers have generally held that the entire Colosseum was a masterpiece of circulation, with people able to enter and leave in as little as 10 minutes. After touring the virtual Colosseum, now he is not so sure.
''Most scholars just never focused on the problem of circulation throughout the building,'' he said. ''They assumed that each of the floors was going to look like the bottom,'' which is spacious and well lighted. ''Only once we had to reconstruct the building did an idea like that pop into our heads.''
Such reconstructions have challenged traditional thinking about other sites as well.
Analysis of U.C.L.A. models suggests that the Roman Senate may have been poorly ventilated and lighted and had inferior acoustics. The models also raised some new questions about the Temple of Saturn, whose design may have been altered centuries after its construction.
Colleges have developed sophisticated devices to enhance the experience of touring the models. At U.C.L.A., researchers view models at the university's visualization portal, a screen 24 feet wide by 9 feet high that offers 160-degree views, with special goggles producing a three-dimensional effect.
At Brown University, archaeologists can view the results of their digs in a room called the CAVE, for Computer-Automated Virtual Environment. Surrounded by three-dimensional images on screens on the walls and the floor, scholars navigate by wearing shuttered goggles and sensors that exchange data with a computer system. A ''wand'' with an internal track ball like that of a mouse moves them wherever they direct it.
Other virtual-reality projects allow users to move around the room physically, with their movements tracked by overhead 3-D magnetic or infrared devices.
Samuel Paley, a classics professor at the State University at Buffalo, and members of the virtual reality lab there have worked with Learning Sites (www.learningsites.com), a design company based in Williamstown, Massachusetts , that specializes in archaeological visualizations, to produce virtual models of several Assyrian palaces. The simulations can be viewed on a supercomputer at the university's center for computational research.
Moving through a simulation of the northwest palace of Ashur-Nasir-Pal II of Assyria, an ancient site in modern-day Iraq, he caught a glimpse of three leaf bas-relief sculptures in a row. The sculptures, which depicted a ritual involving the king, courtiers and protective gods, could be viewed as a single, isolated tableau only from his position on the threshold of the throne room -- as was evidently the intention of the palace's designers.
When Professor Paley described his finding at a lecture, ''the room went absolutely silent,'' he said. ''I think people realized right then that this is a useful technology that helps them see things in a different way.''
Donald Sanders, president of Learning Sites, said that more than 70 university programs across the country were now using computer-generated virtual reality models, compared with only a handful five years ago.
''This is the future,'' Professor Paley said.
But the future is not cheap. More than $25,000 has gone into the Colosseum project so far, researchers at U.C.L.A. said. Microsoft, which incorporated the Colosseum graphics into its Encarta 2002 interactive learning software, helped cover some of the project's costs through a licensing agreement with the university. The Andrew Mellon Foundation supplied $127,000 to cover the Roman Forum project.
Some experts hesitate to rely on such modeling, saying that it can gloss over the realities of the past.
Kenneth Kolson, deputy director of the division of research programs for the National Endowment for the Humanities, said that virtual images conveyed a ''false sense of integrity and purity.''
''Those images, especially the stunningly seductive ones,'' he added, ''convey as much or more about our own values and cultural aspirations as about the ancients.''
Even Professor Frischer and other scholars who have embraced interactive 3-D modeling caution that their reconstructions can never be accepted as fact, partly because new information is always surfacing.
''We're working the stuff out,'' said Mark Wilson Jones, a member of the U.C.L.A. committee of Roman architecture experts and a lecturer in architecture at the University of Bath in England. ''Nothing's ever final.'' One advantage of using digital models, scholars say, is that they can easily be updated with new findings.
Fikret Yegul, a professor of architectural history at the University of California at Santa Barbara, acknowledges that computer modeling can shed new light on the past. ''It just brings greater depth to our understanding,'' he said.
Still, he questions some of the theories of the team of experts assembled by U.C.L.A. ''V.R. models can never be seen as the last word,'' he said. ''They are only another perspective.''
Some researchers reject the technique because they are wary of changing the way they work or of ceding control to computer programmers. And some are unconvinced that the technique accomplishes anything beyond creating pretty computer models. ''There are a lot of archaeologists who look at this as glorified coloring book stuff,'' said Dr. Sanders of Learning Sites.
''There are always people hesitant to move from their own set ways of doing things,'' he said. He offered a historical example.
''It wasn't so long ago that there was a technology coming into popular use,'' Dr. Sanders said. ''The equipment used to create it was very expensive, yet the images you got were something that you could never get without it. Within a generation it became indispensable to archaeology.
''That's exactly how photography got started.''
TWO STOLEN ASSYRIAN RELICS RETURNED TO IRAQ
Courtesy of the Reuter News Agency (6 May)
(ZNDA: Baghdad) On Sunday the Iraqi News Agency reported that two Assyrian
relics stolen after the 1991 Persian Gulf war have been returned. They
were discovered in a London antique shop.
OIL PRICES FALL AS IRAQ LIFTS EMBARGO
Courtesy of the London Telegraph (7 May); by David Litterick
(ZNDA: London) Oil prices fell today (Monday) as Iraq announced that it would end its month-long sales embargo. The US light crude contract fell below $26 a barrel for the first time in over two weeks - almost a cent down from Friday's close.
The Iraqi decision will add 2 million barrels a day to the world market of around 76 million barrels a day. Iraq introduced its sales ban in protest against Israeli incursions into Palestinian territory.
Iran and Libya were the only countries to voice support for the decision but said their participation would be conditional on a blanket ban by all Muslim producers. Saudi Arabia, the world's biggest exporter, ruled out the use of oil as a political weapon in the conflict.
A smaller quantity of oil is currently smuggled by the Kurdish transporters through the northern Iraqi region into Turkey. The ban had increased the "black market" price according to sources to Zinda Magazine.
THE START OF THE DAY
We wanted to know what a day in the life of an Assyrian studying Syriac in our homeland would be like, so we arranged to tag along with a friend we had made during our stay in Arbil, North Iraq.
Yousip Kanna, a bright-eyed teenager at Ur High school, allowed us to follow him to school and see what a school day in our homeland was really like. Having hitched a ride to school using, coincidently, a mini-bus that had been paid for by the AAS-Australia, we arrived in time to see the students lined up for roll call.
The school bell rang signalling the beginning of classes for the students of Arba'elo Shawraya (Primary) and Ur Misaya (Secondary) school, schools that conduct the entire curriculum in Syriac.
Due to the demand on government and the Assyrian Aid Society's resources, Ur, which consists of Years 7 and 8, has to share the school with Arba'elo Primary School.
We had shown up unannounced and after politely introducing ourselves to the principal we turned down a guided tour that he had planned. We didn't want this to be a typical guided tour that was given to all visitors. We wanted a spontaneous look at what a day was like in a Syriac run school, teaching our Syriac language in North Iraq.
Our only prerequisite was that the tour be spontaneous and we be given permission to attend classes of our own choosing.
Our requests were duly granted and right after morning assembly we tagged along to our first class.
Story continued here: http://www.zowaa.com/schools/arbaelour
RAMIN ODISHO ACCUSES CURRENT BOARD, PLEADS TO MEMBERS
Courtesy of the Modesto Bee (20 April)
(ZNDA: Modesto) Ex-President of the Assyrian American Civic Club, Mr. Ramin Odisho, recently sent another personal letter, fourth in a series, to club members. Odisho has been under investigation for more than two years by the Turlock Police Department, Stanislaus County district attorney's office and the California Department of Justice.
Police detectives said the investigation was started after they received complaints of the mismanagement of funds at the club.
Last year, the club's bingo permit was pulled after the investigation revealed the club did not have the proper state non-profit status to be conducting bingo games.
In the latest letter, dated April 10, Odisho accuses the current club board of bouncing checks, misstating revenue, buying landscaping without proper club authorization and holding the annual Assyrian New Year's parade on the wrong day. Club members had no comment.
Odisho served four years as the club president, but stepped down in January after club members rejected a proposed change to the club's charter that would have allowed him to run again.
His previous letters -- also sent to club members -- have accused other members of illegalities and of trying to smear his name in public.
The Assyrian American Civic Club bills itself as the largest Assyrian club in the United States, with more than 1,200 members.
According to sources to Zinda Magazine the contents of these letters and accusations made to current board members may by discussed at the upcoming Assyrian State Convention to be held in Turlock. The letters have become an endless source of hearsay and somewhat comic relief in an uneventful year for the Assyrian community in Turlock.
KARL SULEMAN BANNED FOR LIFE FROM RUNNING A CORPORATION
of the Australian Financial Review (7 May); by Jason Clout
The New South Wales Supreme Court disqualified the once high-flying
Mr Suleman for life after an application from the Australian Securities
and Investments Commission.
The Supreme Court declared that Mr Suleman and Karl Suleman Enterprizes Pty Ltd, which is under administration, operated a managed investment scheme which should have been registered. Suleman's Froggy Group was a high-profile mobile telephone and Internet business that expanded into retailing and construction.
A securities and investment advice business was also carried on without the appropriate licences, the court declared.
The court made permanent injunctions restraining Mr Suleman and Karl Suleman Enterprizes from operating the unregistered managed investment scheme, or any similar scheme, or carrying out a securities or investment business.
Much of the attention on Mr Suleman centred on his links to the Assyrian community and his extravagant lifestyle.
But Mr Turton said the case was unusual only due to the large amount of money involved: "The size of this was much different, but we have seen a number of schemes like it They offer a high rate of return, way above market rates. They also tend not to be mass-marketed and instead are often distributed through a close-knit community by word of mouth."
Mr Suleman reportedly raised more than $130 million for his managed investment scheme.
The application for damages has been adjourned until July 22, as has the case involving Mr Suleman's wife, Vivian.
The Supreme Court has restrained the Sulemans from dealing in any of their assets.
Courtesy of the Armenian National Committee of America (26 April)
(ZNDA: New York) In an emotional tribute to the Seyfo Genocide of 1915 -- in which over one million Armenians, 750,000 Assyrians, and 300,000 Greeks perished in the hands of the Turkish troops -- New York Governor George E. Pataki presented his annual Armenian Genocide Proclamation to Lucy Derderian, a 102 year-old survivor, during an April 25th ceremony at his Manhattan offices.
Speaking to an intimate gathering, Governor Pataki recalled the suffering of the Armenian people at the hands of the Ottoman Turkish government and called for recognizing the Genocide for what it was, "genocide."
The Governor's powerfully worded proclamation stated that, "the Armenian Genocide of 1915-23 was an organized extermination campaign employed by the Ottoman Turkish authorities." The proclamation further noted that, "the final result of the Armenian Genocide of 1915-23 was the near extermination of the Armenian people, the loss of the majority of their ancestral lands and the dispersing into many areas of the world the scarred survivors of this extreme crime against people."
Condemning the Turkish Government's denial of this great crime against humanity, the Governor's proclamation explained, "[this denial] is an abomination that occupies no proper place in debates carried out by New Yorkers, who represent some of the most intellectual and also the most morally certain people anywhere; as the movement toward full recognition of the Genocide follows its steady pace, every human being wanting to be counted as an Armenian Genocide recognition supporter can be considered a citizen of New York or an honorary citizen of New York."
Governor Pataki made no mention of the Assyrians in his speech.
Zinda Call For Action: Please take a moment to write to Governor George E. Pataki using the form at (http://22.214.171.124). Thank Governor Pataki for his courage to recognize the 1915 Genocide and bring to his attention the fact that two out of every three Assyrian lost their lives between 1915 and 1923 along with over one million Armenians and 300,000 Greeks. For "Subject of Your Email" use the topic "1915 Genocide". Please forward a copy of your letter to Zinda Magazine for publication in our next issue.
To write a letter to the Governor use this mailing address:
Governor George E. Pataki
"The Epic of Gilgamesh" is a masterpiece of literature from Bet-Nahrian (Mesopotamia), describing the adventures of Gilgamesh, King of Uruk, in the pursuit of fame and immortality. According to the later version of the story the gods create a wild creature named Enkidu to challenge Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh confronts Enkidu in a fight, but later become friends. They begin a journey into unknown world in the west where they meet the evil monster, Humbaba, in the Cedar Forest. Enkidu slays Humbaba, an act which angers the gods. So they take his life. Enkidu's death saddens Gilgamesh and so he undertakes his greatest journey to seek eternal life. On his quest for eternal life he encounters many more adventures and meets Utnapishtim, the hero who had survived a flood.
For learn more about the "Epic of Gilgamesh":
From Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/browse/-/297518/ref=br_dp_/103-4951047-5891000
OBITUARY: BABA G. BADAL
(ZNDA: Turlock) Baba G. Badal (27 Jan 1910 - 4 May 2002), 92, died of natural causes on Saturday at Emanuel Medical Center in Turlock, California.
Mr. Badal was a native of Iran. He lived in Turlock 11 years. In Iran, he was a deacon at a church and a school teacher. He was a member of St. Thomas Assyrian Church.
He is survived by his wife, Maral Badal of Turlock; children, Walter Badal, Joann David, Victor Badal and Elshua Babakhan, all of Turlock, and Ator Badal of Santa Clara; and 13 grandchildren and one great-grandchild.
A funeral service will be at 11 a.m. Tuesday at St. Thomas Assyrian Church. Burial will be at Turlock Memorial Park. Private visitation.
(ZNDA: Modesto) Shushan Babanejad (20 March 1907 - 28 April 2002), 95, of Modesto died of an extended illness Sunday at Doctors Medical Center.
Mrs. Babanejad was a native of Urmia, Iran. She lived in Turlock since 1971, and also lived in the former Soviet Union. She was a homemaker. She was a member of the Assyrian Church of the East Mar Addai Parish of Turlock.
She is survived by her children, Mary Danapour of Los Angeles, Sarah Morad of Turlock, Samreda Babanejad of San Francisco, Freda Badal of Sunnyvale, and Dr. Fred Adams and Hilda Papion, both of Modesto; sister, Valintine Bebla of Turlock; and 18 grandchildren and 11 great-grandchildren. She was preceded in death by her son, Nicola Babanejad.
A funeral was held at 10 a.m. last Friday at Assyrian Church of the East St. George Parish, Ceres. Burial was held at Turlock Memorial Park.
OBITUARY: FLORA SHAHBAZ
(ZNDA: Turlock) Flora Shahbaz (10 October 1915 - 27 April 2002), 86, died of natural causes at Emanuel Medical Center in Turlock, California. Mrs. Shahbaz was a native of Urmia, Iran. She lived in Turlock since 1974. She was a homemaker. She was a member of Modesto Covenant Church.
She was preceded in death by her daughter, Miriam Rustam, and a sister. Graveside services were held at Turlock Memorial Park. Allen Mortuary was in charge of arrangements.
12TH ANNUAL SKOKIE FEST CELEBRATES DIVERSITY
Saturday May 18, from 11 am to 9 pm, and on Sunday, May 19, from 11 am to 7 pm
Ever yearn to experience the life of people in other cultures? How about trying the traditions of Sweden, Korea and Scotland? Savoring the exotic tastes of Thailand, Pakistan and Armenia? Listening to the music of Assyrian, Greece or Philippines? Those yearnings can now become a reality. The 12th Annual Skokie Festival of Cultures, which will take place on Saturday May 18, from 11 am to 9 pm, and on Sunday, May 19, from 11 am to 7 pm, promises all that and more to an expected 27,000 attendees.
The Festival, to be held at Oakton Park, 4701 Oakton in Skokie, is a FREE event. The "journey" begins when you receive a "Passport to the World," the official guide to all festival happenings. The passport includes performance schedules for the two showcase stages (an ethnic performance every hour), exciting information on ethnic and cultural traditions and a festival map. Passports will be stamped at the end of the tour offering a keepsake of the event.
Take your taste buds on a trip around the world with culinary delights
that include Thai Vegetable Fried Rice, Oriental Sweet and Sour Chicken,
Mexican Tacos and Burritos, delicious Greek Beef and Chicken Gyros, and,
of course, the good old American favorite, Hot Dogs.
Visit the Assyrian Exhibition Tent both Saturday & Sunday all Day presented by Midwest region of the Assyrian American National Federation.
See The Assyrian Dance performed by the Assyrian Students of North Park University on Saturday May 18th at 3:30PM - 4:00 PM
Assyrian American National Federation
SHORT-TERM EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY FOR ENGINEERING STUDENT
We have been informed of a full-time employment opportunity for 6-9 months for junior or senior engineering students. Job involves working with engineering teams developing new products in a high-technology firm. This is an excellent opportunity for MEs, EEs, and IEs. Job requires strong organizational, interpersonal, and communication skills; and a good knowledge of common SW packages used in engineering and business management environments. Knowledge of CAD is a plus.
Please contact us ASAP if you are interested.
Scholarship Committee of AAA of SJ
(8TH CENTURY B.C.)
According to Robert Chambers' "The Book of Days," published in 1864, servants shielded Assyrian kings from the elements with umbrellas. The umbrellas were reserved for the monarch and have never been represented as borne over any other person.
The modern state called Iraq is a British creation. Before
the First World War, the fertile triangle around the rivers Tigris and
Euphrates was simply three provinces in the Ottoman (Turkish) empire,
and was known in Europe as Mesopotamia (Assyrian Bet-Nahrain). When the
Ottoman Empire entered the war on the German side in 1914, Britain sensed
a threat to its interests in the region - British trading companies already
dominated local commerce - and quickly landed troops on the coast several
hundred miles south of Baghdad. After a protracted campaign, the British
finally captured all of Mesopotamia by late 1918. Two years later, the
League of Nations declared the territory a British mandate: in effect
a colony, occupied by British troops and largely administered by British
officials as a single entity called Iraq , with independence promised
in the long term.
FRI – SAT
ASSYRIAN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
The Editorial Board of “Melta” Bulletin and a committed group of Assyrians in Russia plan to hold a two-day International Scholarly Conference “The Assyrians Today: Issues and Perspectives.” The Conference program will highlight the following aspects:
- Issues facing Assyrians in the Middle East.
- Assyrian communities in Diaspora.
- Perspectives on future development of the Assyrian community.
- Ways of rapprochement among the different tribal and confessional groups.
Twelve prominent international Assyrian scholars and political commentators have been invited. The official Conference languages are English, Russian and, first of all, Assyrian. Simultaneous translation will be provided. Anyone who wishes to join in this Conference should complete and send in the form below as soon as possible so that the hosts may know how much space to reserve.
Hotel Rossiya (about 2 blocks from the Kremlin).
Per day costs are given in US dollars at the conference rate, include breakfast, and are as follows: Single room: $50, Double room: $70. Registration for the Two-day Conference (per person): $20, Tickets to the Bolshoi Theatre: $50, Banquet: $50 .
Send this information to:
Melta Bulletin: P.O. Box 18, Moscow, 129642, Russia
Telephone: (7-095)-935-0155, -233-5387 (S.Osipov)
BRITISH MUSEUM LECTURE SERIES
“Feast and flower in ancient Assyria”
A Public Lecture by Dr. Lorna Oakes
Great Russell St
WC1. Gallery talk
Meeting Room 7
Tel: 020 7323 8511
SUPERFEEST WITH BABYLONIA
A Cultural Dinner Party Presented by
Beth-Nahrin TV & Babylon Association in Hoofddorp/Amsterdam
Entertainment by the Sensational Singer: Babylonia
Restaurant Le Festival
Polaris Avenue 1
Hoofddorp (Gebouw Transpolis)
Tickets: 15 Euros
SKOKIE - CHICAGOLAND
12TH ANNUAL SKOKIE FEST CELEBRATE DIVERSITY
11 AM to 9 PM
11 AM to 7 PM
Hourly ethnic performances, culinary delights, Assyrian Dances, & more…
Visit the Assyrian Exhibition Tent both Saturday & Sunday all Day presented by Midwest region of the Assyrian American National Federation.
See The Assyrian Dance performed by the Assyrian Students of North Park University on Saturday May 18th at 3:30 PM - 4:00 PM
For more information visit the Assyrian American National Federation website at:
LOS ANGELES - NORTH HOLYWOOD
AAA OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA GENERAL MEETING
5901 Cahuenga Blvd.
-Report of the activities since installation
-Programs of the Executive Board for the remainder of the year
ASSYRIAN STATE CONVENTION OF CALIFORNIA
Look For Complete Information on the Schedule of Activities and Accommodations in the Coming Issue
FRI – SUN
THE SOCIETY FOR IRANIAN STUDIES LECTURE
"Identity and Institutions Among Assyrian-Iranians in the United States"
An illustrated lecture by Dr. Eden Naby-Frye
An examination of the patterns of departure and arrival from Iran, the discovery of an expanded Assyrian identity in a milieu that began to include refugee Assyrians from other parts of the Middle East, tied by religion but not language, to Iranian Assyrians.
Due to special efforts exerted over the past twenty years at Harvard University and at the Ashurbanipal Library in Chicago, a record of printed materials and photographs affords an opportunity to study the issues facing the Assyrians from Iran as they settled in New York, New England, Chicago, and California.
The conference will be held at the Bethesda Hyatt Regency. Arrangements have been made for reduced rates. To make hotel reservations, contact Hyatt Regency Hotel directly at 1-800-233-1234 or the conference site at the following address:
Bethesda Hyatt Regency
One Bethesda Metro Center
Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
Phone (301) 657-1234
Fax (301) 657-6478
BRITISH MUSEUM LECTURE SERIES
“Spatial rganization in early Mesopotamian cities: new contributions from microstratigraphic analyses”
A Lecture by Dr. Wendy Matthews
10, Carlton House Terrace
London SW1. BSAI
Bonham Carter Memorial lecture.
Lecture follows forum at 5:00 PM
Non-members are welcome to attend.
Please confirm your attendance to:
BSAI Sec., Mrs. JP MacIver at email@example.com
Tel: 01440 785 244, fax: 020 7969 5401
MON – THUR
48TH RENCONTRE ASSYRIOLOGIQUE INTERNATIONALE
"Ethnicity in Ancient Mesopotamia"
Dept of Assyriology & Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten
Registration Form: http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/rencontre/mailform.html
Registration Fee: Euro 70 by April 1, 2002
FRI – MON
AUG 30–SEP 2
ASSYRIAN AMERICAN NATIONONAL CONVENTION
MIDDLE EAST STUDIES ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE
Marriott Wardman Park Hotel
2660 Woodley Road, NW
800/228-9290 toll free
Zindamagazine would like to thank:
Dr. Matay Arsan
ZINDA Magazine is published weekly. Views expressed in ZINDA do not necessarily represent those of the ZINDA editors, or any of our associated staff. This publication reserves the right, at its sole discretion, not to publish comments or articles previously printed in or submitted to other journals. ZINDA reserves the right to publish and republish your submission in any form or medium. All letters and messages require the name(s) of sender and/or author. All messages published in the SURFS UP! section must be in 500 words or less and bear the name of the author(s). Distribution of material featured in ZINDA is not restricted, but permission from ZINDA is required. This service is meant for the exchange of information, analyses and news. To subscribe, send e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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